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Analytical and microscopical studies on the protective effect of
ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and beta-carotene against the toxicity
induced by fenitrothion on the liver of female albino rats

* Ekram F. Hashim and Kadry Weshahy

* Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Fayoum, Egypt .
** Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
.

Abstract

The organophosphate insecticide feneitrothion is a contact insecticide and
selective acaricide. It is used as a fly, mosquito and cockroach, residual contact spray
for farms and public health programs.
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity of fenitrothion on
the female rate and the possible protective effects of ascorbic acid (vitamine C) and
beta­carotene as antioxidant agents against the toxicity induced by fenitrothion. Sixty
of adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to six equal groups including control
group and groups treat
­

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successive days.
Ingestion of fenitrtothion caused a significant increase in ALT (alanine
transferase), AST (aspartate transferase), and AP (alkaline phosphatase). It decreased
signifiantly GL (glucose) level, AchE (acetyle cholinesterase) and GSH (glutathion
reductase) activities, while, it had insignificant effects on TB (total bilirubine) and a
slight decrease in TP (total protein). The histological study of female rat liver tissues by
Hx & Eosin,P.A.S, and Methyl Green Pyronine revealed that, fenitrothion showed
vascular and degenrative changes in the hepatic cells, Also, it caused a significant
decrease in glycogen contents and depletion in of nucleic acids in hepatic cells.
Treatments with ascorbic acid and beta­carotene plus fenitrothion hasn't been
caused any significant changes in all parameters in serum of female rats. Treatment with
ascorbic acid plus fenitrothion resulted a significant improvement in all parameters
tested regarding to the histological study, while, beta-carotene plus fenitrothion showed
the same improvement except in glycogen content in hepatic cells .
Key Words : Fenitrothion ­ Toxicity ­ ALT ­ AST ­ GL ­ AChE ­ Rats ­ Histological
­ beta ­ carotene ­ Ascorbic acid .






Refree : Prof ; Moustaf Ismail
Refree : Prof ;Hasan. Sabry


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!

Histopathological and Biochemical Evaluation of the
Pulmonary Toxicity of Cadmium Chloride and thiocarbamate

Somaya Y.M Hamoudah, Samia I. El Naggar* and Haleem H.H.**
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine (for Girls) Al
AL Azhar University and Department of Pathology, Cairo University* and
Department of Biochemistry, Animal Health Research Institute Dokki**
Abstract:
The aim of the present work is to study the acute pulmonary toxicity of cadmium
chloride (CdCl ) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) each separately and in
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cadmium content in the blood and lung were measured by atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. It was found that the blood cadmium concentration significantly
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However, with combined treatment the cadmium level in the lung showed significant
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Histopathological examination of the lung showed inflammatory infiltrate of alveolar
septa specially around blood vessels in DDTC treated animals. While that were
exposed to CdCl and to combined (CdCl + DDTC) showed interstitial fibrosis and
chronic inflammation. These changes were more severe and serious with combined
exposure. Moreover the electr
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!
of combined exposure showed damage of type I pneumocytes, hyperplasia of type II
pneumocytes with loss of microvilli. While the interstitial tissue revealed collagen
bundle and chronic inflammatory cells.


Introduction:

Cadmium is an environmental
released into the environment. A large
'3
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0
number of workers are potentially
to a number of organs (Habeebu et al.,
exposed to cadmium during mining and
)
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7 . -
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)
widely used in numerous industrial
found that cadmium chloride is capable
processes and it is a component of many
of
inducing
morphological
cell
commercial products. Electroplating is
transformation and that transformed
the major use of pure metal (Gossel and
cells are potentially tumorigenic in the
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exposed workers.
6
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) .
The toxicological effect of
cadmium is found in nature in close
cadmium was studied by many
association with lead and zinc. During
'
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mining of these metals, they may be
that cadmium chloride is an


Refree : Prof ; Abla Mohumed Helmy Afefy


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 2)


Microsoft Word - 3.DOC The Egyp
­



Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With
Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy MD*,
Fedaey M. Abbass, ** M N M R Farahat MD***
Waleed F Ezzat MD****
* Lecturer of internal med & nephrology Ain-Shams university, ** Fellow of nepnrology ,
Ahamed Maher Teaching Hospital ,***assistant professor Of internal med &immunology
Al-Azhar university, **** lecturer of E.N.T. Ain shams university.

Abstract:

Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on
regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell
disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease
patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis
compared to normal control subjects.

Design: !
"
"
,include sickle cell disease
patients with chronic renal fa
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nclude the normal
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All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including
neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen,
s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using
#
,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of
- .

Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal
control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than
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)
cell disease have significantly.
Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with
12
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#
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#
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patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis ,
presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v.

Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic
renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should
be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis,
correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some
degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

Refree : Prof ; Dr. Badowi Labib.

Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 3)


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Toxicity of Biosurfactants and Synthetic Surfactants
on Marine Organisms
Prepared By:
Eman I. Siam
Assistant Professor in Marine Environmental Protection Programme
Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport

Abstract
This paper presents results of toxicity testing series, in which four synthetic
surfactants, two commercial oil dispersants, and six bio surfactants have been
examined.
The test systems were bacterial growth inhibition, microalgae growth inhibition,
and microflagellate growth inhibition and biodegradation rate. The multiplication of
bacteria was stimulated by surfactants, whilst that of microflagellates and microalgae
was inhibited. This may be due to the metabolic usage of surfactants, especially
biosurfactants by the bacteria. No toxicity could be detected with the glucose lipid GL,
produced by the marine bacterium Alcaligenes sp. MMI. Most biosurfactants were
degraded faster than synthetic dispersants.

Introduction



Surfactants are used sinc

was less damaged than after treatment
years for the combating of marine oil
with the synthetic Finasol (OSR- /
pollution, surfactants are mixtures
without surfactants usage (Dörjes
which include surface active agents to
$.%&/
'
reduce the interfacial tension between
induced further investigations about the
oil and sea-water, this makes it possible
toxicity of synthetic and biogenic
for an oil slick to break into very fine
surfactant with the use of several
droplets (less t
$ '
different best systems.
diameter) which are rapidly distributed
Material and Methods
throughout the water column because of
Tested biogenic surfactants and their
natural water movement.
producing strain
A disadvantage of the actually
TL ­ 1
­ dicorynomycolate,
used surfactants is their own toxicity,
and
which strongly limits their applicability.
TL ­ & 1
­ tetraester (C%, C$
During the last decade several surface-
fatty acids and succinate), both from
active
substances
produced
by
Rhodococcus erythropolis.
microorganisms have been isolated and
RL
=
rhamnose ­ lipid mixture
(
)*
+ ,-# # $.% /
, Pseudomonas sp
After their discovery the idea of a new
SS= sophorose ­ lipid (acidic form)
generation of surfactants was born.
SL= sophorose ­ lipid (lactonic form)
A first experimental investigation
SUC= sucrose ­ lipid, corynebacterium
in t
0
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sp.
flat was experimentally oil polluted, and
GL= glucose ­ lipid, Alcaligenes sp.
after treatment with the biogenic
Ema = Emalsan,
Acinetobacter
trehalose-dicorynomycolate (TL- /
Calcoaceticus (marine)


Refree : Prof ; Dr. Abla M . Helmy Afify.



Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 4)


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!""!

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Oil Pollution hazards from reception facilities
On Sidi Krier Coast-Alexandria

Prepared by:
E.E.Siam & M.M.Rfaat
Marine environmental protection program
Arab Academy for science and Technology and Maritime Transport

Abstract:

Increased world demand on energy is accompanied by an increase on oil
production and transport. The transport of a huge amount of oil from production field
to consumption countries caused series problems to the marine environment. The actual
study is focused on the oil pollution in the Egyptian northern coast waters. Water
samples were taken and analyzed and the average dispersed oil concentration in ppm is
determined. The oil industry and specially the reception facilities on board and on land
are responsible for this pollution. The study details the reasons of the accumulated oil
pollution and gives recommendations to reduce the marine environmental damage.

Introduction
Oil is the main source of world
(
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energy. The huge amount of oil world
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production reache
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+(
The U.S. Coast Guard reported in
from one side the economic needs for
&'' ) *
&
that type of fuel and the size of the
introduced into different water bodies.
problem of the sea water pollution by
Also, the report showed that through
oil.
&''!
+ 4
In the United States, the U.S.
are believed to result from human error.
coast guard reported pollution spills
The problem of oil spills and sea water
+ &' ,
&'' )!*
pollution has two sides; On-Land and
-
+
.
!! +
On-Board.
&'
+
.
#/ +
The On-Land problem was
&''
translated by governmental and nongo -
An international oil spill statistics
vernmental organizations into oil spill
0&'' 1),*
.
' +
)*
5 +
gallons oil spilled world wide into the
these plans are the British Colombia Oil
marine and inland environments from
Spill Contingency plan. The original
&,
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The National Academy of
Greys Harbour and Exxon Valdez spill
Science in United States reported in
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+ 8
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sea as a result of all shipping operations.
The On-Board problem was realized by
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the
International
Maritime
3
"""""
Organizations. Which concluded that,
3
,"""""
+
if it is to reduce pollution from spill, it
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Abla M . Helmy Afify.



Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 5)


Microsoft Word - 6.DOC The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., :
­ June

I.S.S.N:

Comparative study of either sufentanil or morphine added to a
mixture of lignocaine and bupivacaine versus a mixture of lignocaine
and bupivacaine alone in brachial plexus block

*Dr Mervat M. El Mously. ** Hossam M. Kandeel
Anaesthesia & ICU* Orthopedic department**

Abstract

This study evaluates the peripheral opioid analgesia by comparing the effects from
the addition of two types of opioids, morphine or sufentanil combined with a mixture

mixture of lignocaine, bupivacaine and adrenaline alone for patients underwent
elective surgery of the forearm and hand under axillary brachial plexus block.
!
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l (c) morphine (m) and
sufentanil (s) groups. We evaluated onset of sensory block than postoperative mean
arterial blood pressure (M.A.B.P), heart rate (HR), pain severity (V.A.S), time of first
request of analgesia (T.F.R.A) and adverse effects. Our results showed that there were
no significant differences on the onset of sensory block between (c) ,(m) & (s) groups.
As regards the M.A.B.P and HR, there were significant increase in (c) group

% &
%&
%-
&
nt increase in (m) group

%&
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%-'
&
%&

%&
% &
% ­
&
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)
times. After that (iv) morphine were given to abolish the postoperative pain untile the
end of the study. Concerning the postoperative pain severity, the results showed that
both (m) and (s) groups had significant increase of analgesia as it showed lowest pain
scores compared to (c) group, and in (s) group compared to (m) group, using visual
analogue scale (V.A.S).
Time of first request of analgesia was delayed markedly in (s) group than (m)
group and eventually (c) group. The adverse effects were greater with (m) group
compared to (c) and (s) group while it was similar between (c) & (s) group.

Introduction



Regional techniques through bloc -
Recently, opioid receptors have
king the input of noxious stimuli can
been discovered on immune cells
reduce the stress of surgery as well as
sympathetic nerve fibers and peripheral
depression of the cardiac and respira -
neurons%"&. Peripheral analgesic effects
tory systems produced by general anae -
of opioids may improve regional anae -
sthesia and improve outcome in high-
sthesia without centrally mediated side
risk patients%&. Opioids are most
effects%& . Peripheral opioid receptors
commonly delivered by oral, intra-
on primary afferents may be physiolo -
muscular, subcutaneous, intravenous,
gically significant in that they may
epidural and intrathecal routes, the
represent targets for endogenous opio -
identification of the peripheral opioids
ids, immuno-histochemical and bioche -
may be effective when used locally%&.
mical data indicate the existence of
Refree : Prof ; Dr, Soheir Farag



Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 6)


Microsoft Word - 7.DOC The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., :
­
June

I.S.S.N:
Sildenafil Citrate ( Viagra) effect on the pattern of controlled
hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside or nitroglycerin

Mona M. Radwan and Nemat El Baz Mohamed
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al-Azhar
University, Cairo

Abstract:

Oral sildenafil Citrate (viagra) is an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction
(ED) . There are reports of serious hypotension when sildenafil citrate is given to
patients taking certain vasodilators . This study was designed to assess the effects of
sildenafil citrate (viagra) therapy on the dose, efficacy and safty of I.V. infusion of
nitrovasodilators; sodium nitroprusside or nitroglycerin, to induce controlled "delibrate"
-
! g/kg/min) or nitroglycerin
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variables; mean arterial blood pressure "MAP" and "ECG" pattern, were monitored.
In control groups it was found that, ( SNP) infusion achieved a rapid induction
of controlled hypotension accompanied by reflex hypertension after drug infusion
discontinuation. However, (NTG) infusion failed to decrease the (MAP) to the target
level, and upon discontinuation of its infusion, return of arterial blood pressure to
control values, was moderately slower. Comparison between the effect of the two
drugs revealed a significant difference in mean arterial blood pressure after infusion.
Treatment with sildenafil citrate (viagra) , augmented the (MAP) reduction
caused by (SNP), and improved the lack of potency of (NTG) induced hypotension .
Comparison between the effect of the two drugs revealed a significant difference
during drug infusion, and after drug infusion discontinuation. Doses of (SNP) or
(NTG) required to induce delibrate hypotension in groups treated with sildenafil were
decreased when compared to that in control groups.

Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) infusion induced increase in the mean heart rate
(HR) without ECG changes in control or treated groups. Sildenafil citrate treatment
increased significantly the initial HR in comparison to control group. In contrast,
nitroglycerin (NTG) infusion, did not change significantly the (HR) in control group.
However, in sildenafil citrate treated group, (NTG) infusion induced significant increase
in the HR throughout the study , and there was also changes in PR QRS, and QT
interval in one case.

Introduction:


Induced "controlled, deliberate"
technique of induced hypotension.
hypotension, as an adjunct to anest -
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and
hesia, is frequently used to minimize
nitroglycerin (NTG) have been used to
blood loss and to improve the quality of
induce hypotension because they are
the surgical field (Sivarajan et al.,
rapid in onset and have short duration
reported
of action ( Friederich and Butterworth,
that, most reviews suggests an MAP of
. The vasodilator effect of both
-
+ &
%

)
(SNP) and (NTG) is mediated by a
blood pressure while using the
release of nitric oxide (NO), which
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Raga Abaza


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 7)


Microsoft Word - 8.DOC The Egyptian Jour
­

Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients
with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis
Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy
And Abdul-Zaher M. Khattab*
Lecturer of Internal Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo,
*Lecturer of Pathology, Zagazig University, Zagazig,

Abstract:
Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a known complication
for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx). The issue of
stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues
to be unresolved. Patients and Methods:

!
"#
"
hemodialysis (HD-#" $
%
" &'( )&'(-group) had
been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum
calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol"), markers
of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal
propeptide of collagen type I "PINP"), bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and
deoxypyridoline "DPYL"), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Also, BMD had
been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) twice, at inclusion time and
* ! "
" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers
of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a
significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score) at follow up in the HD group,
compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score
change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also
showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be
PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent
disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for
* ! " %
+ ,
- .
"
% "
"
""!
to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for
calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post
transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD.
Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be
considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients.
Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone formation; bone
alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I
(PINP), markers of bone resorption; pyridoline (PYL), deoxypyridoline (DPYL), intact
parathyroid hormone (iPTH), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bone mineral
density (BMD).

Introduction and aim af aork:
hyperparathyroidism,
parathormone

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a
resistance of bone cells, vitamin D
known cause of reduction of bone
metabolic disorders, immobility of
mineral density (BMD) with subsequent
patients, hypogonadism, amyloidosis
enhanced
bone
fragility.
The
and toxic osteodystrophy by aluminum
pathophysiological
causes
include
or poor dialysis quality . In addition,

Refree : Prof ; Dr. Badowi Labib.


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 8)


Microsoft Word - 9.DOC ­

!!"
#$

Effect of Echis carinatus snake venom and its purified fractions
F and F on the evolution of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells
Nabil A. Soliman
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Echis carinatus crude
venom and some of its isolated toxic fractions on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells
transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of the white female mice as an experimental
model of fast growing tumor. The fractionation of the crude venom by gel filtration on
sephadex G- %
&' , F , F
and F ) while, the refractionation of
these fractions by ion exchange chromatography using diethylamino ethyl cellulose
(DEAE-cellulose) gave nine subfractions (F (, F ), F (, F ), F *, F ( F ), F (
and F )).All these separated subfractions were pure when tested by a third
chromatographic step using SDS-PAGE and scanned with densitometer scan. Some in
vitro biological properties of the crude venom and its isolated fractions were studied. It
was found that F showed the highest value of protein content, followed by F and
F (. On the other hand, it was found that no interrelationship between phospholipase
enzyme activity (PLA ) and the protein contents of the crude venom and its isolated
fractions. Toxicity studies were conducted on adult female Swiss albino mice to
determine the approximate acute median lethal dose (LD% ) of the crude venom and its
purified fractions. LD% of crude venom, F and F
+
,
-
.%
% /g/g b.w. In addition, F and F were non-lethal, while after ion exchange
chromatography, the only toxic fraction was F ( (LD% 0 #% /g/g b.w.). The
inhibitory effect of crude venom, F and F ( on tumor growth was studied by
treatment of EAT bearing mice with two intraperitoneul injections of the sublethal
&
1 23% ) of crude venom and its purified fractions F and F (. The
+
,
123% of the crude venom, F
and F ( was
confirmed by a remarkable decrease of the viable tumor cells. This was accompanied by
a significant increase in the number of dead cells, and increased percentage of survivals.
On the other hand, the animals inoculated by EAT cells showed a significant increase in
polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) leukocyte cells influx into the
peritoneal fluid.
It could be concluded that Echis carinatus crude venom and its isolated toxic
fractions F and F ( showed a significant antitumor activity against EAT cells
transplanted in the intraperitoneal cavity of white female albino mice.

Introduction
treatment with specific snake venoms
Many experimental studies have
fractions has an important toxic effect
been carried out using snake venoms
on tumor cells, while others have
for the treatment of animal tumors.
reported no antitumor effects after
However, we have seen many
inoculation with snake venom (Da
controversies on this subject. Some
Silva et al.,
--45
authors have reported that tumor
contains a layout of evidence regarding
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Ali .A .A


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 9)


Microsoft Word - 10.DOC ­

!!
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! %


Principles of surgical management of adult cavus foot

Hossam Kandil MD
Department of Peadiatric Orthopedic Surgery.
National Institute Neuromotor System and Rehabilitation


Abstract

Back ground: Cavusfoot is a complex deformity with an abnormally high arch. It is the
result of the problem, and is itself the problem. It needs complete evaluation,
classification, and management. The aim of this study to evaluate the new advances in
the surgical treatment of adult idiopathic cavus foot.
Material and Method: Twenty nine patients with thirty eight idiopathic cavus feet were
&
'
( &
groups:- group A received surgical management including soft tissue release and
anterior tarsal wedge osteotomy, group B received surgical management including soft
tissue release and triple arthrodesis.

Results: The assessment of the results showed that there were significant improvement
in all parameters in both groups and satisfactory results were considered obtained in
'
) * +

Conclusion: Cavus foot is not alike. Surgical management must be individualized
based on the age of patient, flexibility or rigidity of the deformity. I believe that
correction of the deformities begins with soft tissue release. The anterior tarsal
osteotomy is the best choice for cavus foot with correctable heel in young adult, and
triple arthrodesis should be reserved as a salvage procedure for severe , rigid, combined
deformity in older patients.

Introduction

neurologic disorder in which the only
Cavus foot is a foot with an
,
,
&
-) ./
abnormally high arch. While it is
Morphologically ICF is a complex
difficult to ascribe a particular threshold
deformity, can be defined as a plantar
of arching beyond which treatment is
flexed forefoot, a dorsiflexed and varus
necessary, most deform -ities are
hind foot, and subsequent elevation of
dramatic enough to make diagnosis
plantar arch frequently associated with
straight forward. While it is not rare, the
claw deformity of the toes. During gait,
incidence is not well established. The
the complex deformity produce freq -
etiology of idiopathic cavus foot is yet
uent ankle sprain, soft tissue overlo -
unknown, and no definite cause is
ading and stretching, adaptive second -
discovered. However, it is caused by a
ary bones and joints changes, and foot
'
( , 0 -/- !/


Refree : Prof ; Dr. Hassan sinnara. FRCS,M.D


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 10)


Microsoft Word - 11.DOC ­ !
!!

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!%

Age-related changes in microsome-dependent conversion of T -T ,
thyroid function and cadmium toxicity in albino rat.

Sohair A. Moustafa,
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ismailia, Egypt

Abstract
The impact of age on microsomal function, manifested by its ability to convert
thyroid hormone thyroxine (T ) to triiodothyronine (T&), was investigated using four age
'& (
)
-months). The data show impaired microsomal function
with advancing age represented by a significant decrease in serum levels of T& and
T&/T ratio. There was a decline in the liver glutathione (GSH), total proteins and serum
aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-
glutamyl transpeptidase (*GT). There was an-age associated increase in liver content of
the lipid peroxidation products, thiobarituric acid (TBA)-reactants and the serum total
protein.
+ +
,
-
.
'( +
-
/
' +
-old)
+
0
-
1
-
)
mg/kg CdCl 2their controls were injected with distilled water. A higher susceptibility of
senile rats to cadmium toxicity was manifested as a significantly higher decrease in their
serum T& level and T&/T ratio than adult compared to control. A reduction in the
adaptive response of senile animals was manifested by a less increase in hepatic GSH in
senile than adult as compared to control. The level of hepatic TBA-reactants was
significantly higher in treated than in control group. The increase was more pronounced
in the senile group. A marked hepatic cellular damage indicated by an increase in the
serum levels of the AST and ALT was more pronounced in senile compared with adult
rats. Treatment resulted in a decrease in the serum *GT and liver triglycerides (TG).
The decrease in both parameters was more evident in senile as compared to adult
group.

Key words:

Introduction

As nations become progressively
associated decline in the above
more industrialized, the incidence of
variables may be further complicated by
overweight, non-insulin dependent
disturbance in the normal metabolism
diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and related
and action of thyroid hormones,
metabolic disorders has been shown to
particularly T& (Wallace & Hofmann,
increase especially at old age. Along
((%2
6
3 4
(((
with those changes, the metabolic and
Shinohara et al., !!!/
- .
pathophysiologic sequelae related to
basis of these changes is unclear. The
those disorders become more common
importance of studying the age­
'
3 4
(((/ 5
associated abnormalities of thyroid
associated with progressive decline in
hormones stems from the fact that age-
the normal dietary and metabolic
associated deterioration in thyroid
responses to diet and environment (Tulp
function is directly linked to the decline
3 4
(((/
-
in the ability of old organism to adapt to
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Mohamed Ismail


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 11)


Microsoft Word - 12.DOC ­

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A Study on the bacterial flora and its significance in the housefly,
Musca domestical L. (Diptera : Muscidae)

Mostafa I. Hassan , Zaineb M. El-Basheer , Eman M. Rashad and
Marwa M. Abo-El-Maaty .
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo.
!Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University



Abstract

The microbial flora associated with the housefly, Musca domestica were isolated
and their influence on some biological parameters of the fly was studied. The microbial
flora isolation was carried out by using different selective and non-selective media. The
examination of the housefly gut revealed a heavy and diverse microbial flora, these
were : Enteric bacteria (Eschericia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonuas sp.,
Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Serratia sp.); Cocci form bacteria (Haemoltic Staphylococci
and Streptococci, non-haemolytic Staphylococci and Streptococci) and Bacillus sp.
Actinomycetec, yeasts and filamentous fungi were isolated only from external surface
of the fly. Aposymbiotic (the gut-bacterial free) flies were obtained by feeding female
flies on norofloxacine antibiotic. Hatchability, larval and pupal mortality, pupation and
adult emergence were affected by elimination of bacteria from the fly gut. It was
concluded that gut bacteria of the housefly are not pathogenic but their association
might be mutual or even symbiotic.

Introduction
Houseflies have adapted to
poliomyelitis and infectious hepatitis,
domestic living, feeding and breeding
the bacteria associated with cholera
on human food, organic wastes and
(Vibrio), enteric infections caused by
faces. The movement of houseflies
species of Salmonella and Shigella,
between faeces and food makes them
pathogenic Escherichia coli, haemolytic
ideal transmitters of human disease. A
streptococci, Staphlococcus aureus,
vast literature has developed on this
agents of trachoma, bacterial conjunct -
subject and was summarized by West
tivitis, anthrax, diphtheria, tuberculosis,
&'
(
) *
+
+
'
leprosy and yaws. In addition flies can
,
+
&'
' -(
. a full
carry the cysts of protozoa, including
list of the organisms which have been
those of Entamoeba histolytica which
recovered from houseflies and a
causes amoebic dysentery, and the eggs
detailed
consideration
of
their
of the threadworm Trichuris trichiura,
relationship to human and animal
the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale
diseases.
and of other nematodes and cestodes.
Houseflies have been found to
The present work aimed firstly, to
+
+

isolate and identified the different
and charged with transmit
/
microbial flora associated with the
&,
+
'/ (
female housefly, Musca domestica,
recovered from flies range from viruses
Secondly; to study the effect of gut
to helminthes, and include the viruses of
microbial flora on preoviposition
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Mohamed A.Fouda

Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 12)


Microsoft Word - 13.DOC ­
!!
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Protective effect of ginseng against toxic effect of
ochratoxin (OA) in kidney of male rats

Fatma A. Morsy
Basic Meidcal Sciences Department, Pathology Researches, National
Research Center


Abstract

'
(
)
*
%
*
(
*
+
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-
*
.
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+
! % ( 2
3 // !45 !1
&
% * 3
+
*
*
/ ! ( 23 1 ! (in before OA injection
following the same previous schedule of injections. The remaining groups were injected
with ginseng only. Paraffin sections were used for histopathological study. For
histochemical investigations, sections were stained to demonstrate the glycogen, DNA,
protein and alkaline phosphatase activity. OA showed sever histopathological effects on
kidney demonstrated as pyknosis in some tubules and vacuolar degeneration in tubular
epithelial cells. Also cell debris and hyalin casts were present in lumen of tubules. The
histochemical results showed a decrease in DNA, protein content and negative reaction
for glycogen and alkaline phsophatase activity. The ginseng was found to reduce the
deleterious effect of OA.

Introduction

Ochratoxin A (OA) is a naturally
, 91
.
0' (
)
occurring mycotoxin produced by a
/1
)
' 8
/
1
spergillus ochraceus as well as other
)
/
91
moulds found on a variety of food stuffs
promotion of membrane lipid peroxide -
in many countries (Baudrimant et al.,
ation (Marquadt and Frohlich ,, 1
!! 1 "
.
.
Ochratoxin produces growth depression
teratogenic, carcinogenic, to animals
in body and organs weight in chicks
and possibly to humans (Dorrenhaus et
/: ; ;
3*
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#
!!!
6
- Grubisic et al.,
,, 1
!!!1
((
+ /7
The ubiquitous mycotoxin ochrat -
8
3 !!!1
oxin A (OTA) is associated with the
It is a common feed contaminant,
development of urothelial tumors and
which may impair animals health and
nephropatheis in laboratory animals and
may lead to residues in edible tissues of
(
/7
!! 1
(
/7
!! 1
Ginseng is a potent antioxidant
is wide spread contaminant in human
and protects tissues from damage (Tran
staple food /5
!!!1 "
!! 1 <
)
has the ability to induce chromosomal
peroxidation of rabbit kidney (Zhang,
aberrations in human peripheral lymph -
,, 1
(
( * ch
/
+
,, 1 '
follows free radical injury (Kim et al.,
toxic effect is depletion of lymphoid cells in
,, 1
)
*
some mammals and poultry (Szczech et al.,
/5
,,,
$
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Fatma Ahmad Mohamed Eid


Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 13)


Microsoft Word - 14.DOC ­
!!
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! %


Evaluation Of Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf- ) And
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Expression In Oral
Squamous Cell Carcinoma


Effat A. Abbas, **Wafaa E. Abdel-Aal And ***Aml A. Samy

*Basic Medical Sciences Department, **Medical Division, National
***Research Center

Abstract
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the pattern of expression of
transforming growth factor & (TGF-&) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in
oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate their expression with tumor
grading.
Methods:
' ('
)
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+#,,
))
)

Results:For both markers, positive staining reaction was characterized by cytoplasmic
or cytoplasmic and membranous staining. EGFR was expre
- '
./-
& '
0
1! -
2 )
)
'
particularly strong at the margin of invading cords and nests of tumour cells and poorly
differentiated malignant cells. The expression of both markers was significantly
correlated with histological grading; while the staining intensity showed no correlation
with tumor grading.
Conclusion: This study showed that OSCC express both EGFR and TGF-& and their
expression indicated that these markers may have a potential diagnostic value in
histologic examination. In addition their increased expression in high tumour grades
suggest that they may be used as indicators of tumor aggressiveness.
Key words: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor,
transforming growth factor-& and immunohistochemistry.

Introduction

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a
The expression of several growth
common neoplasm frequently pursuing
factors and their receptors are thought to
an unfavorable evolution. Despite
play a crucial role in the progression of
progress in diagnosis, no major
)
)
5,
33%
breakthrough has occurred in recent
#
331
6
years either in disease treatment or its
3314 ./7
./-& are involved
prognostication. Specifically, the tradit -
in normal growth and differentiation of
ional morphological evaluation of these
oral keratinocytes (Donnelly et al,
tumours, namely in biopsy material, has
33*4
limited utility as an aid for therapeutical
EGFR is a transmembrane
decision and as an independent variable
glycoprotein
with
three
distinct
with
definite
prognostic
impact
domains: an external ligand binding
(Pindbo
33 4
domain, a short intramembranous
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Sami El- Hakim

Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 14)


Microsoft Word - 15.DOC The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medic
­


Histopathological And Biological Studies
On The Role Of Soybean And Broad Bean Against
Radiation Induce Damage In Rat Kidney

*Hanaa Fathy Waer, **Abdel El ­ Rahman Mohamed Attia and
**Hala Abdel Rahman Hassan

*Biology Department, Atomic Energy Authority National Center for Radiation
Research and Technology **National Food Science Dept Faculty of Home
Economics, Helwan University


Abstract

Most of the physiological and histological activities in the animal body are disturbed
after exposure to ionizing radiation. These disturbances are either due to direct harmful
effect of radiation on the biological systems or to the indirect effect of free radicals formed
in the body after irradiation. There is growing evidence that the type of food plays an
important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The biological disturbance due to
ionizing radiation makes search for ways of protecting living organisms essential for
controlling the radiation hazards. Much of the world population relies on legumes, as a
stable food. Legumes can affectively protect cells and tissues against damage.
Our present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of single dose
!"
#
$
%
#
&
f the possible
protective effect of feeding beans (broad beans and soybeans) against radiation exposure.
Histopathological, and biological changes of kidney function in irradiated, and bean fed
animals were carried out. Animals were weighted and daily food intake was determined.
The result obtained revealed that soybean is an extremely rich source of protein and fat as
compared to faba bean. Radiations cause a reduction in food intake and weight gain. It
causes great changes in the kidney glomeruli and collecting tubules. The recovery of the
cells depend on the type of feeding so, feeding soybean gives a significant radiation
protection and decreases the extent of changes induced by radiation

Key words:

Male rats- Radiation- legumes - soybean- broad bean ­ kidney- histology- pathology

Introduction

Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation
radiation (e.g. alpha, Beta particules)
that has the ability of ionizing atoms and
'
" (#
%
)
molecules in an irradiated substance. It
ionizing radiation absorbed by irradiated
includes electromagnetic radiation (e.g.,
material has been measured in terms of
gamma and X rays) and particular
!" *#+# ,
%
-
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Fathey Matter

Full Paper (vol.7 paper# 15)