Interleukin-8 and Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1in patients with ulcerative colitis The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 1 ­ 11 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084


Interleukin-8 and Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in
patients with ulcerative colitis

Mona M. Morsy , Magda I.M.EL Mahdy*and Wafaa H.A. Helmy
Internal Medicine , Clinical Pathology* and Pathology** Departments, Faculty of
Medicine for Girls, AL Azhar University


Abstract:
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, characterized by
dysregulated local immune defense with constant influx of leucocytes , providing a
basis for continuous intestinal inflammation. The present study was conducted to
evaluate the serum and intestinal concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and soluble
intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and their correlation with the disease
activity. Twenty eight patients with ulcerative colitis (16 with active and 12 with
inactive disease) and 12 subjects as a control group were included in the study .The
patients and control group were subjected to the following investigations: colonoscopy
and obtaining biopsy specimens , histopathological examination of biopsy specimen
for assessment of disease activity score, assay of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),
C-reactive protein (CRP), assay of IL-8 and sICAM-1 levels in sera and colonic biopsy
specimens. The results showed that the serum and tissue IL-8 concentrations were
significantly increased in patients with active UC as compared to control group
(p<0.001) and to inactive cases(p<0.001), but there were non significant difference
between inactive and control groups (p>0.05). The results of sICAM-1 in sera and
colonic mucosa showed significant increase in patients with active UC as compared to
the control group (p<0.001) and as compared to inactive cases (p<0.001).There was non
significant difference in sICAM level (in sera and tissue) between inactive patients and
control group (p>0.05). Both IL-8 and sICAM-1 whether in sera or in tissue showed
significant positive correlations with disease activity score and the inflammatory
markers , (ESR and CRP) in patients with active UC. IL-8 in sera and tissue also
showed significant positive correlation with sICAM-1 in patients with active UC. In
conclusion, both IL-8 and sICAM-1 showed significant increase in patients with active
ulcerative colitis as compared to control group and inactive cases , denoting that they
might play a role in the inflammatory response and tissue destruction and that the assay
of their serum levels could be simple, non-invasive tests for monitoring the disease
activity in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Introduction:


Inflammation is one of the commonest
assessments (Pepys and Berger, 2001).
disease entities and the diagnosis of its
Sometimes, surgical intervention ,which
activity is frequently required for the
could be unpleasant and complicated
initiation or the amen -dment of the
might be indicated to verify suspected
relevant therapy. Diagnostic approaches
cases , so less invasive approaches still
have
ranged
from
laboratory,
needed for assessment of inflammatory
radiological, endoscopic, or histological
conditions (Taha et al.,2001).

1

www.000webhost.com

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 1)


Histochemical And Immunohistochemical Studies on The Effect Of Melatonin On Experimental Atherosclerosis In The Aorta of Rabbi The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 12 ­ 24 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Histochemical And Immunohistochemical Studies on The Effect Of
Melatonin On Experimental Atherosclerosis In The Aorta of Rabbit


Mattar FE*; Ismael AA*; Kasem MA** and Ibrahim KI**
From the Department of Histology, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine in
Cairo* and in Assiut**


Abstract
Treatment of atherosclerosis or its prevention still represents one of the difficult
challenges to modern medicine. Free radical peroxidation of LDL has been proposed to
have a primary effect on the onset of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Melatonin has been
shown to be potentially effective in prevention of some disorders in which free radical
processes are involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible
protective effects of melatonin on high cholesterol fed animal arteries. Assessment of
the atherosclerosis associated foam cells, intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1)
and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was performed by histochemical and
immuno-histochemical methods.
Thirty adult male New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups, ten animals
each. Group-A served as control, group B&C were fed 1% cholesterol-rich diet for 6
weeks. Animals of group-C were drenched, at night, 510 ml saline solution containing
4.2 mg/kg/day melatonin. Frozen sections from the thoracic aorta were prepared for
histochemical demonstration of peroxidase & acid phosphatase enzyme activities, and
immuno histochemical display of ICAM-1 & VCAM-1. The enzyme activity and
adhesion molecule expression were measured by computerized image analysis.
Accumulation of peroxidase & acid phosphatase-rich foam cells was
microscopically evident in the sub-endothelium of group-B arteries only. Enzyme
activity and expression of ICAM-1 were significantly (p <0.0001) higher in group-B
than group-C which was also higher than control, while VCAM-1 expression was
significantly (p 0.013) higher in group-B than control which was higher (p<0.00001)
than group-C.
In conclusion, the results indicate that melatonin could potentially be beneficial in
prevention of the food induced atherosclerotic lesions.

INTRODUCTION

Excluding the genetic factors,
lowering drugs( Sevanian and Hodis,
hyperlipidemia along with enhanced
1997). On the other hand, Oxidants
oxidation of lipoprotein lipids are
have been shown to produce athero -
separate but interacting factors giving
genic responses independent of lipid
rise to the formation of atherogenic
levels and the mechanisms of injury
lesions
(Steinberg
etal.,
1989).
include many of the biological events
Evidence in support of the lipid
described for atherogenesis. Support for
hypothesis is shown by the dramatic
the role of oxidants in the development
reduction in coronary artery disease
of atherosclerosis also comes from
arising particularly from cholesterol
clinical trials demonstrating antioxidant
12

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 2)


Possible involvement of IL-18 in SLE-dysregulated apoptosis and cytopenia The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 25 ­ 37 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Possible involvement of IL-18 in SLE-dysregulated
apoptosis and cytopenia

Mona Hilmy Alrayes* and Mona Mohamed Moursy**

Departments of *Clinical Pathology and **General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine for
Girls, Alazhar University.
Abstract
Background and objectives: Tissue homeostasis is maintained through a balance
between cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death. Dysregulated apoptosis leads to
development of autoimmunity like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One of the key
biological responses induced by IL-18 is that in combination with IL-12 it stimulates
Th1 cell differentiation and involvement in immune responses. Up regulation of Fas
ligand in Th1 cells by IL-18 may increase apoptosis of Fas receptor expressing cells that
interact with activated Th1 cells. This induction of apoptosis may allow IL-18 to play a
role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The aim of this study is to
quantify the percentage of apoptotic peripheral blood neutrophils in SLE and to
determine the relation with cytopenia. Also the serum level of the proinflammatory
cytokine IL-18 is measured in SLE to be correlated with apoptotic neutrophils and other
studied parameters. Methods: Neutrophil apoptosis in 30 SLE patients and 15 healthy
controls was assessed by flow cytometry using annexin V and 7AAD binding. Serum
IL-18 was measured by ELISA and CBC was done by automated cell counter. Results:
The percentage of total, early and late apoptotic neutrophils, determined by annexin V
and 7AAD binding, was increased in peripheral blood of SLE patients without
corticosteroid therapy (group I, n=15) (54.2 ± 16.3 %, 36.35 ± 13.9 % and 17.8 ± 6.4 %
respectively) and also SLE patients with corticosteroid therapy (group II, n=15) (47.3 ±
28.1 %, 37.1 ± 25.6 % and 10.1 ± 6.6 % respectively) compared with normal controls
(group III, n=15) (7.24 ± 3.7 %, 2.5 ± 1.5 % and 4.7 ± 2.9 % respectively). SLE
neutrophil apoptosis correlated negatively with WBC (p=0.01) in group I. Serum IL-18
was significantly elevated in SLE patients with renal complication within group I when
compared with SLE patients without renal complication within the same group (p=0.01)
and correlated positively with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (p=0.001). In group
II; IL-18 revealed significant negative correlation with % of both total and early
apoptotic neutrophils (p=0.02) and highly significant negative correlation with absolute
lymphocytes (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Increased circulating apoptotic neutrophils in
SLE patients may be a pattern of unbalanced process of both apoptosis and clearance of
apoptotic material. Neutrophil apoptosis may be a significant cause for SLE associated
cytopenia. Effect of IL-18 on neutrophil apoptosis and clearance may be masked or
opposed by other undetermined factors in SLE. Corticosteroid therapy may improve
neutrophil apoptotic clearance as well as IL-18 inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects
in SLE.
Introduction
The hallmark of autoimmune
specific autoantibodies that recognize
diseases such as systemic lupus
evolutionary conserved molecules. The
erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes
mechanisms by which these largely
mellitus, dermatomyositis and rheuma -
intracellular molecules are recognized
toid arthritis is the production of highly
as foreign are poorly understood (Utz et
25

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 3)


Using Restriction-Site Variation of PCR-Amplified 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene for Phylogenetic Analysis of Hymenolepis spp The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 38 ­ 48 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Using Restriction-Site Variation of PCR-Amplified 18S Ribosomal
RNA Gene for Phylogenetic Analysis of Hymenolepis spp.

Mohammed H. Awwad, Gehan H. Lashien and Sahar M. Abou El kheir
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha Branch

Abstract
Hymenolepis spp. infections are often asymptomatic, especially in light cases.
Heavy infections can induce enteritis with nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal
pain, and dizziness. Genetic therapy is the most future promising trend for treatment and
prevention so, a genotype map of different parasite on microorganisms must be done. A
simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphisms
(PCR/RFLPs) assay, using the common restriction endonucleases HindIII, Bg1I, EcoRI,
BanII, SacII and SstII, is described to illustrate the genetic structure of both
Hymenolepis species. All restriction endonucleases have been used to differentiate
between both species and based on ~2200 bp long sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA
gene.
H. nana and H. diminuta were undifferentiated when their 18S rRNA genes
digested with HindIII restriction endonuclease. The two Hymenolepis were well-
differentiated when their 18S ribosomal RNA genes were digested with Bg1I and EcoRI
restriction endonucleases. It's clear observed that BanII, SacII and SstII restriction
enzymes could be used as a genetic marker for H. nana when the enzymes uniquely
fragmented the 18S rRNA gene without digesting the gene of H. diminuta.

Key words: Phylogeny, Hymenolepis, PCR/RFLPs, 18S rRNA gene.

Introduction

Intestinal parasites are widely
supply, which leads to transmission of
prevalent in developing countries, prob-
enteric pathogens. At least 750 million
ably due to poor sanitation and inade-
episodes of diarrhea occur per year in
quate personal hygiene. It is estimated
developing countries resulting in five
that as much as 60% of the world's
million deaths (Snyder and Mersen
population is infected with gut parasites,
1982).
which may play a role in morbidity due
Genus Hymenolepis, a cyclophy-
to intestinal infections (WHO, 1987 and
llidean tapeworm, has been described as
Gagandeep et al., 1998). In addition, the
an infrequent cause of diarrhoea in hu-
common practice of keeping wild anim-
mans (Beaver et al., 1984).This species
als as pets, particularly in small villages
was first recognized in the small intes-
where usually there is no appropriate
tine of a boy in Cairo in 1851 by
medical attention, increases the risk of
Bilharz (Al-Hussaini et al., 1979). The
unrecognized transmission of common
two species of genus infecting man,
as well as new or emerging human path-
namely Hymenolepis nana (H. nana)
ogens. Two-thirds of the world's popul-
and H. diminuta, cause diarrhea and
ation live in the less developed
abdominal pain only in hosts with heavy
countries that lack proper sanitary
infection. Hymenolepis nana is the more
facilities and a safe drinking water
common of the two parasites but both
38

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 4)


Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 49­77 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

Rajaa M. Milyani

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science,
King Abdulaziz University.

Abstract

The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city
(Saudi Arabia) was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males
and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin,
leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a
surfactant substance (Tween 80) moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the
surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute.
Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study
group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium
species and Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus dominated among children (30% each). The
most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species,
Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis
(27.5% each). Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans,
Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus
luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia
cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas
fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus,

Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts
were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii,
Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola,
Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative
Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas
luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males.
Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site
separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in
endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

Introduction
"Surprisingly little is known about
receives millions of people for religious
the microflora of the skin and its role in
purposes, from all over the world at
common skin infections such as
almost all the year around namely:
psoriasis and eczema and even less
Saudi Arabia. The importance of such
known of the flora in rare diseases". A
knowledge
is
certainly
obvious,
statement that had been written in 1974
particularly in preventing exogenous
by
Noble
and
Somerville
and
and or endogenous infections. Milyani
regrettably, the same can be applied to
et. al. (1987) stressed upon the medical
our knowledge in 1990s, not only to the
significance of such topic and the lack
skin flora but also to the whole
of information amongst Saudi subjects,
microflora of man, in a country that
and took a step towards that by studying
49

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 5)


țÿ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 78 ­83 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Brief Intense TENS Efficacy in Post ­ Herpetic Neuralgia of
the Sciatic Nerve.

Z. Mowafy Emam Mowafy* and Akef A Khowailed**

* Physical Therapy Department for Surgery , Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo
University, Egypt.
** Physiology Department Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University, Egypt.


Abstract

This study has been conducted to determine efficacy of the brief intense TENS on
pain in patients with post ­ herpetic neuralgia of sciatic nerve. Forty patients (25 males
and 15 females) suffering from post ­herpetic neuralgia with no other systemic or
metabolic disorders, participated in this study. Their age ranged from 25 to 40 years
(X=34.35± 1.11). They were divided randomly into two groups of equal number and
consented to receive brief intense TENS (for the first experimental group) and placebo
TENS (for second control group), from a dual ­ channel TENS unit along the sciatic
nerve course. Assessment of pain was carried out before and after treatment which
include a session for 10 minutes conducted every twelve hours daily, at the same times
on 3 consecutive days. Non significant difference in serum cortisol level was recorded
before starting the treatment between the two groups as it was 34.35 and 34.30 for the
first and second group respectively. Data collected at the end of the treatment program
showed that averages of Serum Cortisol Level (SCL) were 26.59±2.71 ”g/dl and
34.28±3.49”g/dl in the first and second groups respectively. Results showed a
significant reduction in SCL at the end of the treatment program in the first group only.
So the brief intense TENS may be considered as an effective tool in modulating the post
­heretic neuralgia of the sciatic nerve.



Introduction
Now in some pain clinics in USA and
In about 1936 Rovenstine started
UK role of physiotherapist has
the first pain clinic , a nerve block
broadened to encompass the greater
clinic, at new Yourk. In 1961 Bonica
need for assessment in differential
established the first more broadly based
diagnosis and the appropriate use of a
pain relief clinics in Tacoma and
Variety of treatment modalities,2.8.
Washington and Alexander developed a
Post
-
herpetic
neuralgia
clinic in Mckinney, Texas .The first
(Shingles) is the result of a virus (herpes
pain relief clinics in Europe were
zoster) that attacks one or more dorsal
established in Great Britain,4.5.9.10.
root ganglia and corresponding sensory
Physiotherapists became directly
nerves.
Post
herpetic
neuralgia
involved with care of patients attending
frequently involves the trigeminal ,
pain clinics during the 1970s,1.6.13.
intercostals and the major extremity
The
actual
involvement
of
peripheral nerves,3.23.27.
physiotherapists in the multidisciplinary
Diagnosis of post- herpetic
team of pain clinics was often in the
neuralgia is initially difficult when skin
form of TENS application,7.11.15.20.
eruptions (vesicles or blisters) are not
78

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 6)


NEUROENDOCRINOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH DYSPHORIC DISORDER IN PREMENSTRUAL WOMEN The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 84 ­ 91 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Radioimmunoassays Of Hormonal Changes Associated With
Dysphoric Disorder In Premenstrual Women

Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Maha G. Soliman**
* Obstetric and Gynecology Dept. Faculty of Medicine, Al-Margab University, Great
Socialist People's Libyan Jamahiriya and ** Pharmacology Dept (Medical microbiology
and immunology unit) Notional Organization for Drug Control and Research

Abstract
The neuroendocrinological changes that occur in patients with Premenstrual
Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) are poorly understood. The mechanism is likely to be a
complex interaction between gonadal hormones and neurotransmitters. Melatonin is the
predominant pineal neurohormone. The gonadal changes associated with melatonin are
mediated via the hypothalamus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate melatonin
concentrations in patients with PMDD. Also serum prolactin (PRL) and progesterone
levels were estimated for any correlation with melatonin secretion. During the
symptomatic late luteal phase, serum melatonin concentrations were determined by
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 12 women with PMDD and 12 normal control women
(NC). Also serum PRL and progesterone were estimated to all women by RIA.
Melatonin concentration in patient with PMDD was significantly lower than in NC
(mean 25.25 VS 79.25 P< 0.05). Serum PRL levels were significantly higher in PMDD
subjects than in NC (mean 39.08 VS 20.17 P < 0.05). Serum progesterone levels were
lower in PMDD than NC (mean 20.42 VS 33.58 P < 0.05). The results showed inverse
correlation between melatonin and PRL levels (r = 0.931, P < 0.001) and direct
correlation between melatonin and progesterone levels (r=0.894, p < 0.001). No
correlation was found between PRL and progesterone level. Findings of the study
suggest that lowered melatonin levels in women with PMDD may be due to
involvement of the pineal gland in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

Introduction

It is well known that clinical
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
symptoms such as psychosis, epileptic
Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It more
seizures and sleep disturbances aggra-
rigorously defines criteria for what
vate around the time of menstruation. In
historically has been referred to as
some healthy women, subjective sleep
premenstrual syndrome. Based on
feelings or moods have been reported to
studies of its phenomenology and
change throughout the menstrual cycle,
course, PMDD was categorized in
which suggests that sleep structure and
DSM-IV as a depressive mood disorder
sleep-wake rhythm may change during
(Parry, 1997).
the menstrual cycle (Ito et al., 1995).
Although the etiology of this
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
condition has remained elusive despite
(PMDD) is the new terminology used in
considerable research, recent success in
the American Psychiatric Association's
treatment studies would seem to
84


Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 7)


Some Biochemical Alternations Associated with Oral Contraceptives The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 92­ 104 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Some Biochemical Alternations Associated with Oral Contraceptives
And Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats.

E,A. Khalil* and M. H. Affifi**
*National Organization For Drug Control And Research,
BO Box 29 Cairo, Egypt
**Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University.
Abstract
An excess intake of vitamin D2 can result in mobilization of calcium in the
skeleton and increase the serum calcium level. This calcium is taken up by soft tissues
such as arteries. The risk of calcium builds up in arteries, a significant component of
atherosclerotic plaque. Many researches clarify the relationship between oral
contraceptives and atherosclerosis. This study aims to evaluate the changes in some
biochemical parameters as well as the histopathological examination of liver and aorta
following the administration of hormonal oral contraceptives (O .CS) with different
concentrations of estrogen (ethinyle-estradiol) (E.E) and progestogen DL-norgestrel
(norethindrone) (NOR.) to the atherosclerotic rats. In addition to this, the study clarifies
92
the role of low dose oral contraceptives. 48 adult female albino rats were divided into
six comparable groups of 8 animals each. Group I (Gr.1) was considered as control,
group II (Gr. II) was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with vit. D2 350.000 IU /kg B.W.,
group III (Gr. III) administered O.C (35 g E.E/0.5 mg NOR.), group IV (Gr. IV)
received (vit. D2 350.000 I.U vit. D2 /kg B.W plus O.C 35 g E.E/0.5 mg.), group
V(Gr.V) received (vit. D2 350.000 I.U/kg B.W. plus O.C 35 g E.E/1mg NOR.), group
VI (Gr.VI) received (vit. D2350.000 I.U /kg B.W.plus O.C 70 g E.E/0.5 mg NOR.)
daily for an experimental period eight weeks.Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST),
serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
displayed significant increase in the following groups (higher progestogen
concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, at low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated
group, at higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated,and
at low-dose O.C treated group). Serum triglycerides recorded significant increase in
group treated with higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, low-dose
O.C plus vit. D2 treated group , higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2
treated group, vit. D2 treated group,and at low-dose O.C treated group respectively.
Serum total cholesterol increased significantly in higher progestogen concentrations in
O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, at low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2
treated group, low-dose O.C treated group and at higher estrogen dose within O.C plus
vit. D2 treated group at 8 weeks in comparison with control. Histopathological studies of
livers showed severe at the higher progestogen concentration in O.C plus vit. D2 treated
group and at low dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group .Liver displayed moderate
degenerative changes in higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, in
vit. D2 treated group and in low dose O.C treated group. Media calcinosis in aorta was
more obvious at the higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated
group. Also it develops at low dose O.C treated group.
In conclusion atherosclerosis may develop at low dose O.C due to progestogen
content.

Keywords: Hypervitaminosis vit. D2, O.Cs, Atherosclerosis, Liver, Aorta

92

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 8)


Skin Temperature Changes to Strong Low Rate Acupuncture -Like TENS in Raynaud's Disease The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 5 : 105 ­ 110 Dce 2001
I.S.S.N:

12084

Skin Temperature Changes to Strong Low Rate Acupuncture -Like
TENS in Raynaud's Disease.

Z. Mowafy Emam Mowafy* and Akef A Khowailed**

* Physical Therapy Department for Surgery , Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo
University, Egypt.
** Physiology Department Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University, Egypt.


Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the strong low rate(SLR)
acupuncture -like TENS on the skin temperature in Raynaud's disease. Forty patients
(30 females and 10 males) suffering from Raynaud's disease with no other systemic or
metabolic disorders, participated in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 40 years
(X=27.35 ± 4.41). They were divided randomly into two groups of equal number and
consented to receive SLR, Acupuncture-like TENS for the first study group and placebo
TENS for the second control group, on the thoraco-lumber region from a dual ­channel
TENS unit. Assessment of the skin temperature from the big toe and little finger was
carried out before and after treatment ( session for 20 minutes) at the same times on 3
consecutive days, in an air conditioned room, with the ambient room temperature was
adjusted between 24°C to 28°C. Before starting the treatment program results showed
no significant difference in the toe skin temperature (TST), in °C between the study and
control groups as it was 29.91 + 2.44 and 28.7+1.23 for the study and control groups
respectively. Also no significant difference was recorded in the finger skin temperature
(FST), as it was 28.85+2.36 and 27.45+1.17 for the study and control groups
respectively. Data collected at the end of the treatment program showed that averages of
the (TST) in °C were 31.44±2.57 and 28.85±1.237 in the study and control groups
respectively. While averages of (FST) inșC were 30.75±2.51 and 27.66±1.186 in the
study and control groups respectively. Results showed a significant increase in TST and
FST at the end of the treatment program in the experimental group only, which
suggested that SLR acupuncture ­like TENS could be fruitful in Raynaud's disease.



Introduction


Raynaud's disease is an idiopathic
the spasm disappears there is a reactive
trophoneurosis that is characterized by
hyperaemia, the color of fingers or toes
paroxysmal spasm of the digital
changes from blue to red, they throb,
arterioles, producing pallor or cyanosis
and patient experiences pins and
of fingers or toes with numbness and
needles,11.14.22.
occasionally resulting in gangrene,3.7.10.
In some patients as the disease
It is a disease of young women
advances, the spasm fails to relax
described by a French physician called
completely and in the course of time
Raynaud 2.5.13
actual necrosis of fingers or toes tips
,
.
Spasm of the digital arterioles
may develop,8.15.26.
causes capillary flow to cease, so that
Electrical eels were known to the
fingers or toes go white and numb. As
Ancient Egyptians and to Hippocrates,
105

Full Paper (vol.5 paper# 9)