Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 456 - 469

Ultrastructure alterations of retinal photoreceptors of the black rat,
Rattus rattus exposed to certain heavy metals

Elsayed F. A. El-Dawi¹ and Naima I. Naguib²

1-Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2-Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and
Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract

Aim of work: This study was designed to investigate the impact of lead and cadmium on the
retinal photoreceptors of rats.

Material &Methods: Adult black rats, Rattus rattus, were selected and divided into control and
exposed groups. The exposed group was housed in industrial car batteries room containing
fumes of lead and cadmium. The retina prepared for scanning and transmission electron
microscopy.

Results: The scanning electron microscopy revealed different lead-cadmium changes
represented by gradual increasing in spaces between segments of the photoreceptors, associated
with swelling of their inner segments and accompanied with rupture, degeneration and
decreased numbers of some rods and cones in the outer segments. Disorganization, shortening, a
decrease in number of the photoreceptors and a great deformity were the characteristic changes
after prolonged exposure to the heavy metals. The aforementioned damages of the
photoreceptors were confirmed at the ultrastructural level using transmission electron
microscope in the form of progressive disorganization, shortening, swelling, widening of the
intradiscal
spaces,
vacuolization
and
degeneration of the lamellae of the outer segments (OS), followed by the damage of
mitochondria of the inner segments(IS). Excessive penetration of the processes of the
pigmented epithelium (PE) filled with pigments of different shapes and sizes between the
damaged segments were noted. These pathological changes were considered the first symptoms
in the retinal toxicity.

Conclusion
: The present results are alarming and call for further investigations to elucidate the
impact of exposure to these heavy metals for longer periods on the rat vision and eye structure.

Key words
:
Photoreceptors, SEM, TEM, Heavy metals, Rats

Introduction

Pollution is still the main problem of the
because of their worldwide natural presence
world. Today, as a result of modernization
in batteries, coal, mineral, oils and in
and construction of different manufactories
several chemical industries (Gerhardsson
of batteries, oil, refining and painting
and Skerfving, 1996). The hazards of these
industries, the pollutants became widely
two metals are not only due to their high
distributed in the air, soil and water. These
toxicity, but also due to the low rate of
pollutants affect all living organisms,
elimination from the consumers' body, and
including man.
often unchanged for long periods (Allen,
Lead and cadmium are among the most
1995).
common heavy metal pollutants, which
In many investigations, of heavy metal
contribute to environmental pollution
impacts, fishes and rats have been used as
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 470 - 490

Biochemical, histological and histochemical studies of oat
(Avena sativa) on hyperlipidemic rats.

Eman G.E. Helal* , Fatma Eid** and Amira M. Salah EL-Din*
Zoology Department(*physiology,**histology), Faculty of Science, Al-
Azhar University

Abstract

Hyperlipidemia : is an elevation of lipids in the blood stream and these lipids include:
fats, fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and triglycerides.
Hyperlipidemia is associated with hepatic fat accumulation .
Material and methods:
Six groups (5rat/group) of female albino (Rattus albinus) were used. The 1st group used as
control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol) was induced for 3 weeks
only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left other 3 weeks
without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic
group for 3 weeks then treated with Avena sativa for another 3 weeks ( 200 g/Kg diet ), the 5th
group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol) for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as
hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given Avena sativa in diet (200 g/Kg diet).
Results:
The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in body weight, serum glucose,
AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, total lipids, cholesterol,
triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, while there was highly significant decrease in HDL-
cholesterol.Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of
the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat ameliorated the biochemical
parameters, histological and histochemical results
Conclusion:
It is recommend to use oat in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have
hyperlipidemic family history.
Keywords:
Hyperlipidemia,Oat bran, Lipid profile, Albino rats, physiological parameters, histopathology
and histochemistry.

Introduction

Hyperlipidemia (mainly increased level of
encouraging safety profile. Dietary plants
total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG)
therefore are considered to be useful means
and
low-density
lipoprotein(LDL)
to prevent disorders such as atherosclerosis
cholesterol along with decrease in high-
(Choudhary et al., 2005).
density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol) is the
One of the most important plants used as
predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD).
hyperlipidemia-lowering effect in the folk
Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor
medicine in Egypt is oat herb (Avena
in the initiation and progression of
sativa). Oat is considered as an important
atherosclerotic impasse (Harrison et al.,
source of water-soluble fibers, have long
2003).
been recognized as a potential cholesterol-
The hyperlipidemia-lowering effect of
lowering dietary component (Davidson et
dietary plants has been well studied and
al., 1991).
various plants were shown to be helpful in
The oat (Avena Sativa) is a species of cereal
lowering
plasma
lipid
levels
and
grains, and the seeds of this plant, are used
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 491 - 501

The Values of Serum and Ascetic Fluid Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-
alpha), TNF-Receptor 1 and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in Patients with
Cirrhotic Ascites

Sahar S. Zalam1, Salwa M El Taher2, Samia Al Taher3, Aziza Khalil Omar Samy4,
Hasnaa S. Moustafa 5, Helmy M Elshazly6, Mohamed Farag6
Departments of Clinical Pathology1, Tropical Medicine2, Internal Medicine3, Physiology4,
Biochemistry5 -Al Azhar Faculty of Medicine for Girls & Internal Medicine6, National Liver
Institute-Menoufyia University

Abstract

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is defined as an infection of initially sterile ascitic fluid
(AF) without a detectable, surgically treatable source of infection. It is a frequent and severe
complication of cirrhotic ascites. Because of the high morbidity and mortality of SBP, the rapid
and accurate diagnosis is required. Aim: The present study aimed to measure the levels of tumor
necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-r p55) and C-reactive
protein (CRP) in both ascetic fluid and serum of patients with sterile and infected cirrhotic
ascites to show their diagnostic values as compared to ascitic fluid culture and
polymorphnuclear leukocyte (PMN) count. Patients and methods: TNF-alpha, TNF-r p55 and
CRP were measured in both ascetic fluid and serum of 20 patients with spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis (SBP), in addition to 22 patients with sterile cirrhotic ascites. Results: The results of
clinical examination showed a significant difference as regard abdominal pain, fever jaundice,
upper GIT bleedings, encephalopathy and Sclerotherapy among both groups. The serum levels
of CRP and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in patients with SBP as comparing to patients
have sterile ascites, but TNF-r p55 serum level showed no significant difference. On evaluation
of ascetic fluid parameters, total leucocytic count (TLC), plymorphnuclear (PMN) count , CRP,
TNF-alpha, TNF-r p55 are significantly higher in SBP patient group than group of sterile
ascites. Sensitivity and specificity of ascitic fluid PMN (cut-off value >250 cells/ mm³) in
discriminating infected ascites from sterile ascites were 70% and 86.4%, respectively.
Sensitivity and specificity of ascitic fluid CRP (cut-off value >1.0 mg/dL) in discriminating
infected ascites from sterile ascites were 85% and 72.7%, respectively. Sensitivity and
specificity of ascitic fluid TNF-alpha (cut off value >12 pg/ml) in discriminating infected ascites
from sterile ascites were 80% and 63.6%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of TNF-r p55
(cut-off value >6.2 pg/ml) in discriminating infected ascites from sterile ascites were 75% and
68.2%, respectively. Conclusion: We concluded that, the elevated serum and ascetic fluid levels
of CRP, TNF-alpha and TNF-r may suggest their role in the pathogenesis of ascetic fluid
infection and their higher sensitivity and specificity make them to be good discriminators in
ascetic fluid infection (especially a cheap and easy ascitic fluid CRP levels). Thus may help in
rapid diagnosis and early start empirical antibiotic therapy without waiting the culture results.
{Key wards: Ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, CRP, TNF-alpha, TNF-receptor}.

491

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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 502 - 514

Anti-müllerian hormone, inhibin B and antral follicle count as markers of
premature ovarian failure in women with type I diabetes mellitus

Alshimaa A . Abd Elatif* Sabah I . Abd Elreheem**,
Amany M. E . Abd Elmegeed**, Hoda Mahmoud Abd El Wahab***
Gynecology and obstetric*, Clinical pathology**, Radiodiagnostic Departments, Al
Azhar University, Faculty of Medicine for Girls.

Abstract

Objective:
To evaluate the different markers of ovarian reserve (AMH-Inhibin B , FSH and antral follicle
count (AFC) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( IDDM).
Methods:
We studied 30 patients with IDDM as study groups (10cases>32 years group IV and 20 cases
32 years group II) and 20 healthy women as control groups (8 cases >32 years group III and 12
cases 32 years group I . Serum levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B and AMH were measured at (days
1-7) of menstrual cycle and AFC was done by trans vaginal ultrasound.
Results:
AMH levels were lower in IDDM patients than in controls > 32 years (2.35 2.2 versus
7.79 1.73 p0.000). Also IDDM groups showed lower levels of inhibin B. While there is no
difference in the levels of FSH .. AFC is valuable for the diagnoses of premature ovarian failure
in IDDM.
Conclusion:
Compared with FSH (AMH and inhibin B) are more valuable for the diagnosis of premature
ovarian aging in IDDM patients which developed earlier decline in the ovarian follicle pool
compared with the healthy women and also AMH is more valuable than AFC for detection of
premature ovarian failure in IDDM.

Introduction


abnormalities may be especially detrimental
Menopause is defined according to the
for woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus
world health organization classification as
(IDDM) who also experience menopause at
condition of absence of spontaneous
a younger age (8 years earlier in women
menstrual bleeding for more than 12
with DMI as compared with their sisters)
months. The most frequently applied
(Conder
and
Cassoral,
2009,Snell-
definition of premature ovarian failure
Bergeon et al., 2008).
(POF) is the spontaneous absence of

Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH and
menses for at least 4 months in combination
inhibin B are member of the transforming
with FSH levels exceeding 40 IU/liter
growth factor B super family and both are
before age 40 years. This condition occurs
expressed by the granulosa cellsof the
in approximately 1%of the female
ovary.
population (Coulam et al., 1986).
Circulating levels of AMH and inhibin B

Menopause is an event that is
are correlated with primordial follicle
associated with the exacerbation of several
recruitment, suggesting that they may be
diseases and a decrease in bone mass
potential clinical markers for ovarian
(Martin and Manson, 2008). These
reserve.
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 515 - 519

The Pattern of Pacemaker Induced Tricuspid Regurgitation

Ziad Drabaa, Mohammed Holy, Marwan Nemri

Adult Cardiology Department/ Queen Alia Heart Institute/ King Hussein Medical Center.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the frequency and significance of tricuspid regurgitation in patients
who underwent a single lead permanent pacemaker implantation.

Methods:
This is a retrospective study conducted at Queen Alia Heart Institute in Amman-
Jordan during the period 2006 to 2009. A group of 67 patients who had a single lead permanent
pacemaker implantation in that period was involved in the study.
For each patient a transthorasic two dimensional echocardiography was done 6 - 12 months after
insertion of the pacemaker; checking for the presence of tricuspid regurgitation and its degree.

Results:
Males constituted 68.7% of the study sample.
The majority (91%) of patients in the study group had their permanent pacemaker due to
complete heart block.
Tricuspid regurgitation following insertion of permanent pacemaker was found to be mild in the
majority (92.5%) of patients.
Significant and gross tricuspid regurgitation was not common and found only in males.

Conclusion:
Tricuspid regurgitation after permanent pacemaker is usually mild in short term
follow up. However echocardiography check up is recommended to monitor the degree of
tricuspid regurgitation progression in chronic term particularly in the elderly males and smokers.

Introduction



Moreover, an increase in TR grade was
Theoretically, tricuspid regurgitation (TR)
documented in patients with right
was considered as a potential complication
ventricular pacing even without evidence of
of permanent lead implantation.( Morgan DE et
changes in the right ventricular area or
al,1986) However mild TR is a relatively
evidence of interference with leaflet closure
common(Paniagua D et al,1998) and known sequel
by the lead.( Mordehay V et al,2010)
to transvenous right ventricular pacemaker

lead, as a result of valve malcoaptation and
Some reports( Lin G& Nishimura RA et al,2005)
interference with valve closure.( Lin G&
documented an increase in the prevalence
Nishimura RA et al,2005)
of permanent pacemaker induced severe TR

and the need for surgical treatment to
This explains the increasing degree of TR
correct this complication.
by increasing the number of ventricular

leads used in pacing.( Postaci N et al,1995& de Cock CC
Patients and methods
et al,2000 )


This retrospective study was conducted at
Nevertheless, severe symptomatic TR can
Queen Alia Heart Institute in Amman ­
occur in rare cases, secondary to, for
Jordan, during the period January, 2006 to
example, impingement of the tricuspid
December, 2009. Sixty seven adult patients
valve by the pacing lead,( Champagne J et al,2002)
who underwent a single lead permanent
or from leaflet adhesion to the pacemaker
pacemaker implantation were
lead. ( Iskandar SB et al,2006)


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PRE-ECLAMPSIA: I- RISK FACTORS AND IMPACTS The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 520 - 531

MATERNAL SERUM CALCIUM AND TRACE ELMENTS;
COPPER AND ZINC AMONG PRE-ECLAMPTIC WOMEN
IN CAIRO, EGYPT

Essam A. El-Moselhy, Hesham H. Amin*, Hani M. Abd El-Aal**
Departments of Community Medicine,
Clinical Pathology* and Obstetric & Gynecology**
Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Abstract

Introduction
: Low levels of blood calcium (Ca) and trace elements are observed in patients with
pre-eclampsia (PE). Among these patients low serum Ca, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) may be one
of the disease causes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out the serum biochemical
profile of these elements in the studied pre-eclamptic women. Subjects and methods: A case-
control, hospital based study design was used. All the cases and controls were examined
laboratory. Results: Maternal mean serum Ca, Cu and Zn were lower among pre-eclamptic cases
compared to normal pregnant controls with statistically significant differences (P= 0.000 for each
of them). Further, maternal mean serum Ca, Cu and Zn were lower among the severe PE cases
compared to the mild cases with statistically significant differences (P=0.002, 0.000 and 0.000,
respectively). Also, these low elements; Ca, Cu and Zn were significantly correlated factors with
severe PE (P=0.01, 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Recommendations: Early ante-natal care and
treatment for pre-eclamptic women are recommended. Ca, Cu and Zn supplementation may be a
cost effective method to prevent PE. Prospective population based studies are needed in different
areas in Egypt and on large number of pregnant women to determine possible PE risk factors.


Introduction



Hypertension
associated
with
concentrations of these elements and
pregnancy is the most common medical risk
occurrence of PE (Cunningham et al.,
factor for maternal morbidity and mortality
2010).
(Ventura et al., 2000). Further, pre-
PE is a complex disorder caused by
eclampsia (PE) can progress rapidly; putting
a series of genetic, nutritional and
mother at severe risk if there is no good
environmental factors that lead to the
management (Basso et al., 2006). Although
creation of an imbalance between the free
-
PE is an important cause of maternal and
radicals; nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O2 )
fetal morbidity and mortality, its etiology is
and
peroxynitrate
in
the
vascular
still under investigation (Solmon & Seely,
endothelium (López-Jaramillo, 2000). In
2004 and Ziaei et al., 2006).
normal pregnancy the processes of
The role of antioxidants in the
implantation, proliferation, differentiation
prevention of PE is still unresolved issues
and trophoplast invasion produce reactive
(Jeyabalan and Caritis, 2006). Some
oxygen species (ROS). However, in PE lipid
studies have concluded that changes in
peroxidation, which also yields ROS, in
levels of blood elements are observed in
form of free oxygen radicals, is
patients with PE (James et al., 2006). On
uncontrolled. It is speculated that pregnancy
the other hand, other studies have failed to
will progress uneventfully if adequate
show an association between the serum
antioxidants exist to buffer ROS (Caniggia
et al., 2000
and Rumiris et al., 2006). Also,
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King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre - Jeddah The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 532 - 539

The Effect of Thymoquinone on the Activities of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes Following
Gentamicin - Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Abdulla Ayead Alharthi* and Hatim Ali Elsheikh**

Department of Pediatrics* and Department of Clinical Pharmacology**
College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Taif University,
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Abstract

Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of thymoquinone on the renal activities of
drug-metabolizing enzyme following gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar breed rats.
Intraperitoneal administration of thymoquinone alone in rats at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg daily
for ten consecutive days did not produce toxic effects in the kidney or change its drug
metabolizing capacity.

Results: However, nephrotoxicity was produced in Rats injected intraperitoneally with
gentamicin daily at the dose rate of 80 mg/kg body weight for ten consecutive days, where there
was significant increase in the concentrations of serum creatinine and blood urea compared to
control rats (P < 0.0005) and those treated with thymoquinone alone (P < 0.0005), or those given
thymoquinone and gentamicin concomitantly (10 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally daily for
ten consecutive days, respectively) (P < 0.0005). In addition, injection of gentamicin illustrated a
tendency to decrease, although not statistically significant, in the kidney concentration of
reduced glutathione. Furthermore, gentamicin administration resulted in a significant decrease in
the renal concentration of cytochrome P-450 (P < 0.05), while it could not produce significant
changes in the renal activities of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes namely, UDP-
glucuronyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase compared to values obtained for control rats
and those treated with thymoquinone alone or coadministered with gentamicin. These findings
confirm the nephrotoxic effects of gentamicin and its ability to decrease the renal activities of
phase I drug metabolizing enzymes as shown by the significant reduction in the concentration of
cytochrome P-450 in the kidneys of treated rats.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that thymoquinone coadministration with gentamicin can
induce protective effects against gentamicin nephrotoxicity accompanied with restoration of the
concentration of cytochrome P-450 to normal levels in the kidneys of treated rats.

Key words:
Drug metabolism, gentamicin; nephrotoxicity; rats; thymoquinone





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d:\skydrive\Jor\vol41_8 The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 540 - 550

Relationship between HCV infection and Insulin resistance in non-obese non-
diabetic patients

Mostafa K.Mohamed1,Gamal Esmat2 , Mohamed Said2 , Mohamed Abdel Hamid3,
Mohamed Hassany4,Mohamad A.Hassanein4, Kamal A.El- Atrebi4 Helmy El Gazzar5,
M S. Omar6.

1-Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain
Shams University.
2-Department of Tropical Medicine, Cairo University.
3-Viral Hepatitis Research Laboratory, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute
4- Department of Tropical Medicine, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute.
5-Department of Clinical pathology, Hearing and Speech Institute, Egypt.
6- Department of Clinical pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Bani Sewif University.

Abstract

Background:
Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality and represents a
major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. There is growing evidence as regard to the
association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the
mutual link and related virological implication have not been fully clarified. Insulin resistance (IR)
plays a primary role in the development of type 2 DM. This is supported by the results of prospective
longitudinal studies showing that IR is the best predictor of the development of type 2 DM, preceding
its onset by 10-20 years.

Aim:
To assess the correlation between HCV morbidity and Insulin resistance (IR) detected by
HOMA test in none diabetic none obese HCV patients

Materials & Method: The study participants were subcategorized into two groups,Group (I):
included 867 healthy subjects (negative HCV RNA) as a control group. Group (II): included 277
patients with chronic HCV as a study group. The 2 groups were subjected to thorough history taking,
full clinical examination, Anthropometric study,ultrasonographic examination and laboratory
investigations including liver functions, viral markers, and qualitative PCR for HCV RNA ,lipid
profile, glucose profile and HOMA test .

Results:
This study revealed higher insulin resistance in the HCV study group than the control group.

Key words:
HCV-Insulin resistance,HOMA test

Introduction:

(Alberti and Benvegnu, 2003) and there is a

large underlying reservoir of HCV-caused
The incidence of noncommunicable diseases
liver disease (Strickland et al., 2002). The
(NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease (CVD),
countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region
diabetes, cancer, renal, genetic and respiratory
are, therefore, suffering from a double burden
diseases is rising significantly in the Eastern
of both communicable and noncommunicable
Mediterranean
Region
.In
Egypt
diseases (WHO, 2004). The link between
noncommunicable diseases account for about
communicable and noncommunicable diseases
42% of the total deaths while CVD accounts
could exist. In some studies, chronic infections
for about 22% of deaths (WHO, 2004).
have been found to be associated with
Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related
atherosclerosis (Leinonen and
Saikku,
morbidity and mortality and represents a major
2002).There is growing evidence as regard to
public health problem in Egypt and worldwide
the association between hepatitis C virus
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d:\skydrive\Jor\vol41_9 The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 551 - 565

Detection of Visceral adiposity by Ultrasonography
and its relation to insulin resistance in HCV patients

Mostafa K.Mohamed1,Gamal Esmat2 , Mohamed Said2 , Mohamed Abdel-
Hamid3,Mohamed Hassany4,Mohamad A.Hassanein4, Kamal A.El- Atrebi4



1-Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain
Shams University.
2-Department of Tropical Medicine, Cairo University.
3-Viral Hepatitis Research Laboratory, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute
4- Department of Tropical Medicine, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute.


Abstract

Background:
Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality and represents a
major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Ultrasonography is a simple non-invasive
method for detection of visceral fat, which is directly, correlated with insulin resistance (IR) as well as
development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Aim:
To assess the validity of detection of visceral adipose tissue area with Ultrasonography and its
correlation with IR in HCV patients

Materials & Method:
The study participants were subcategorized into two groups, Group (I):
included 867 healthy subjects with negative (HCV) RNA as a control group. Group (II): included 277
patients with chronic HCV as a study group. The 2 groups were subjected to thorough history taking,
full clinical examination, Anthropometric study,ultrasonographic examination and laboratory
investigations including liver functions, viral markers, and qualitative PCR for HCV RNA ,lipid
profile & glucose profile .

Results:
This study revealed that ultrasonography is a simple, non-invasive, safe method in detection
of visceral adiposity, which is correlated significantly with IR in chronic HCV patients.

Key words:
HCV-Insulin resistance-Ultrasonography-Visceral adiposity.


Introduction:


Classification of Abdominal Fat
Epidemiological studies often report an
As described by Ma¨rin et al., abdominal fat is
association between severe obesity and
composed of abdominal subcutaneous fat and
mortality due to increased rates of
intraabdominal fat, as clearly shown by CT
cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);
and diabetes (Feinleib,.1985). In moderate
intraabdominal adipose tissue is composed of
obesity, regional distribution appears to be an
visceral, or intraperitoneal, fat, mainly
important indicator for metabolic and
composed of omental and mesenteric fat and
cardiovascular alterations since an inconstant
retroperitoneal fat masses by a delineation
correlation between body mass index (BMI)
along the dorsal borderline of the intestines
and these disturbances has been found (Kannel
and the ventral surface of the kidney.
,.1985).
According to (Abate,et al,.1994) the two
intraabdominal compartments are separated on
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Effect of noise stress and /or sulpiride treatment on some physiological& histological studies in female albino rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 566 - 589

Effect of crowding stress and /or sulpiride treatment on some physiological
and histological parameters in female albino rats.

Fatma Eid* , Eman G.E.Helal **,Neama M.Taha. * *
Zoology Department ,Faculty of Science,Al-Azhar University.
(Histology*,Physiology**)

Abstract


Background: Crowding is the most stressful factor on human being. So these studies aimed
to clarify effect on some physiological and histological parameters.

Material and methods: 36 Female rats were divided into four groups (6/each):1-control, 2-
treated with sulpiride drug,3- crowded exposure 4- crowded + drug .

Results: drug recorded a significant increase only in the percentage of body weight gain but
the other parameters showed no significant changes. Stress recorded a significant increase in
glucose, ALT, GGT, TP, globulin, creatinine, total lipids, TG, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C.
A significant decrease in percentage of body weight gain and A/G ratio were also detected.
Sulpiride drug ameliorated most of these parameters.
Concerning the histological and histochemical studies sulpiride treatment showed no
detectable changes in the kidney and liver tissues with exception of increased lymphocytes.
Exposure to crowding showed many dystrophic changes in both tissue , but drug treatment
improved all the previous changes and this indicates the protective effect of sulpiride against
crowding exposure.

Conclusion
: it is useful to use sulpiride drug in people who exposed to crowded stress.

Key words: Crowding, Sulpiride drug, Albino rats, Physiological parameters, Histopathology
and histochemistery.

Introduction



Crowding stress is a type of psychosocial
growing, but as yet no group has been
stress induced by an increased density of
found to have a clear therapeutic
population. Population density may be
advantage over the others (Katzung
raised either by increasing the number of
,2008) .Sulpiride is the most favorite drug
species living in the same area and/or by
which used to tolerate stress symptom
reducing their living space. Crowding
(Panzani et al.,2011). People which
stress induces complex changes at the
expose to stress take one or some drugs to
behavioral, physiological and molecular
avoid the effect of stress even without a
levels (Benyo et al.,2007). Antidepressant
doctor prescription. So, in this study we
drugs are the most successful drug in
try to illustrate the effect of one of the
patients
with
clearly
(vegetative)
antidepressant drugs (sulpiride) which
characteristics
including
psychomotor
generally used by people to avoid the
retardation, sleep disturbance, poor
effect of stress. The present study deals
appetite and weight loss. However, a
with the possible protective effect of
variety of different chemical structures
sulpiride against crowded in female albino
have been found to have antidepressant
rats from the physiological, histological
activity. Their number is constantly
and histochemical point of view.




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Effect of N The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 590 - 599

Effect of Exercise Training and Vitamins E and C on Antioxidant Enzyme
Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Aging Rats

Gehan A Youssef*, Hala M T EL-Mougy**
Physiology* and Medical biochemistry departments**, Faculty of Medicine
(Girls), Al-Azhar University.

Abstract

Background: There are many conditions that may affect the antioxidant enzyme activities, as aging
and exercise. Moderate regular exercise up-regulate activities of antioxidant enzymes with depressant
action on the lipid peroxidation processes, while strenuous exercise have a depressant effect on the
activities of antioxidant enzymes with stimulatory action on the lipid peroxidation processes.
Glutathione-S transferase (GST) and catalase are the major part of the specific antioxidant enzyme
defence system response; malondialdehyde is the major indicator to lipid peroxidation processes
which are affected by the exercise.
Aim of the work: To study the effect of moderate regular exercise and strenuous exercise with and
without vitamin E or C supplementation on antioxidant defence system.
Material and Methods: Fifty six aging male albino rats were used in the present experiment. They
were equally divided into seven groups. Group I: control group, Group II: moderate regular exercised
group. Group III: strenuous exercised group. Group IV: moderate regular exercised group with
vitamin E supplementation. Group V: strenuous exercised group with vitamin E supplementation,
Group VI: moderate regular exercised group with vitamin C supplementation. Group VII: strenuous
exercised group with vitamin C supplementation. The exercise was performed on a modified manual
treadmill and the experiment continued for two months. Peripheral blood samples and muscular tissue
samples were taken from all animal groups for estimation of glutathione-S transferase, catalase and
malondialdehyde.
Results
: The moderate regular exercise with or without vitamin E or C supplementation increased the
antioxidant enzymes Glutathione-S transferase, catalase and decreased the malondialdehyde in serum
and muscular tissue. The strenuous exercise decrease the antioxidant enzymes and increase the
malondialdehyde production, while with vitamin E or C supplementation strenuous exercise enhanced
the antioxidant enzymes and decreased the malondialdehyde production.
Conclusion: The moderate regular exercise enhance the antioxidant defence system and so inhibit the
lipid peroxidation production, while the strenuous exercise inhibit the antioxidant defence system
activity and increase the lipid peroxidation production. Supplementation with vitamin E or C is
essential to enhance the antioxidant defence system activities that decrease lipid peroxidation.
Key words: Moderate regular exercise, strenuous exercise, antioxidant defence system, GST,
catalase, and malondialdehyde.

Introduction
Free radicals are naturally produced in the

body, both by normal cellular metabolism and
Oxidative stress is a physiological condition of
as a result of disease process or through
elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen
xenobiotic activities. They have the potential
species (ROS) that cause molecular damage to
to elicit many of the tissue changes associated
vital structures and functions. Several factors
with toxicities and disease processes, but are
influence the susceptibility to oxidative stress
also a consequence of such damage
by affecting the antioxidant status or free
(Kehrer et al., 2010).
oxygen radical generation .Oxidative damage

to lipids, protein and DNA consequently
Antioxidants enzymes act directly and
decrease athletic performance (Deaton and
indirectly to remove reactive organ species.
Marlin, 2003).
One of the most important physiological
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Abstract The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Dec. 2010) Vol., 41: 600 - 617


Neutrophil CD64 in diagnosis of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus
patients
Enas E. El-Said1, Salwa R. Ali2 and Fawzia A. El-Sheshtawy3
1, 3Clinical Pathology department; 2Internal medicine department, Faculty of medicine
for girls, Al-Azhar university

Abstract

Background
: Infection is one of the major complications as well as cause of death in
systemic lupus erythematosus patients (SLE). Differentiation between early infection and
disease flare in these patients is often clinically difficult because both have similar signs and
symptoms.

Aim:
To evaluate CD64 expression on neutrophils as an early marker that can discriminate
between infection and disease flare in SLE patients. Also, its clinical utility in comparison
with traditional laboratory tests used for detecting infection will be studied.

Methods:
The study included 38 subjects; 10 apparently healthy individuals as healthy
controls and 28 SLE patients divided into three groups (10 SLE patients with infection, 10
SLE patients with flare and 8 SLE patients without infection or flare). CD64 on neutrophils
was measured using flow cytometry. Total leucocytic count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate
and high-sensitive C-reactive protein were also measured.

Results:
The median of the percentage of neutrophils expressing CD64 was higher in all SLE
patients compared to normal control. It was significantly higher in SLE patients with infection
than those with disease activity (P <0.001). Using a cutoff value of 17.6, % of neutrophils
expressing CD64; it revealed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.

Conclusion:
The results of the present work showed that measurement of CD64 expression
on neutrophils could be used as a sensitive and specific marker for detection of infection in
SLE patients and differentiation between infection and disease activity.

Key words:
Systemic lupus erythematosus, CD64, Infection.


Introduction

is often difficult because such patients

may present initially with signs and
Infection is an important issue in systemic
symptoms of non specific inflammation
lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients
such as fever, malaise, arthralgia and
because it is not only one of the major
myalgia which could be due to either
complications but also one of the most
infection or disease flare (Reginato et al.,
frequent causes of death among those
1994). However, such differentiation is
patients (Cervera et al., 2003). This may
important because the treatment differs
be due to the immunomodulatory
dramatically (Matsui et al., 2006).
mechanisms occurring in SLE or
Traditionally, there is a battery of
immunosuppression caused by treatment
laboratory tests used for detecting
with corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs
infection including: total leucocytic count,
(Doran et al., 2002).
presence of immature leucocyte forms, C-
The risk for infection increases with age,
reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte
presence of leucopenia, diabetes, chronic
sedimentation rate (ESR). However, they
lung disease and prolonged corticosteroid
can be misleadingly low in patients with
treatment
(Doran
et
al.,
2002).
systemic infections who are receiving
Distinguishing active lupus from infection
corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs. On the
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