Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (September 2010) Vol., 40: 295 - 305

Evaluation the Efficacy of Immunotherapy in Treatment of Bronchial
Asthma

*Seham El-Mansi,**Abd Allah El-Bialy,*** Mohsen El-Shafey,*Shaimaa Mohamed
Ebrahim El-Sayed
Zoology Department, Faculty Of Science Damietta*,Faculty Of Medicine Zagazig
University**, Faculty Of Medicine Mansoura University***


Abstract

The study was carried out on 50 allergic asthmatic children in rural district in sherbin,dakahlia
and received their medication and immunotherapy from clinical immunology unit,zagazig
university hospital.fifty patients were divided into 40 patients as active immunotherapy group
and 10 patients as control group.
Immunotherapy was administered according to preseasonal schedule six month before pollen
season.all patients have positive skin prick test and were evaluated clinically and
immunologically pre and post immunotherapy (for six month),

Results
significant decrease in total serum IgE level P=0.018 (p<0.05)and significant increase in total
serum IgG (P<0.001) after immunotherapy in all patients So immunotherapy is considered line
of treatment for allergic patients.

Key words
Asthma,Chlidren,Total IgE,Total IgG.

Introduction

Immunotherapy induces a switch of the
Asthma and allergies are among the most
preferential differentiation of native t helper
chronic disease,asthma is reported to be the
cell from TH2 type effector cells to TH1
most
frequent
cause
of
childhood
type cells(Till et al.,2004)
disability(Martin Munoz, 2004)
Allergen immunotherapy works like a
Pollen allergy
vaccine. Patients receiving allergen
immunotherapy are injected with
Life-threatening reactions may be observed
increasing amounts of an allergen
with high quality extracts and exceptional
over several months. The body
deaths have been reported (Bousquet et al.,
responds to the injected amounts of the
1994a). The rate of systemic reactions is
allergen by developing an immunity or
greater with standardized pollen extracts
tolerance to it. As a result, allergy
than with either non-standardized extracts
symptoms
can
be
decreased
or
or high molecular weight preparations
minimized when the patient is exposed
(Bousquet et al., 1989,Grammer et al.,
to that allergen in the future.
1986and Grammer et al., 1987). However,
using SIT with care it has been shown that
Immunotherapy acts by modifying T
standardized extract can be used safely
cell responses either by immune
(Hejjaoui et al., 1992).
derivation (increase in Th0/Th1) or T
Allergen immunotherapy in children is
cell energy (decrease Th2/Th1) or more
effective and well tolerated.It has been
likely both, depending on a number of
shown to prevent the new onest of allergen
factors including the nature of the
sensitivities in monosensitized patients as
allergen, the allergen dose, adjuvants
well as progression from allergic rhinitis to
used.
asthma(lind et al.,2010)
Shortly
after
initiation
of
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 306 - 313

Identification and Characterization of Nuclear Matrix Protein(s) and
assessment of its usefullness for early diagnosis of bladder cancer

Abdelfattah M. Attallah1, Seham E. Mansy2, Waheba A.
Zarouk3, Maged M. Mahmoud3 and
Ibrahim E. Mohamed4
1R & D Department, Biotechnology Research Center, New Damietta City, Egypt
2Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, Egypt
3Molecular genetics and enzymology department, National Research Center,Cairo,
Egypt
4Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt


Abstract

Background: the highest incidence rates of bladder cancer are generally found in industrially
developed countries, particularly North America and
Western Europe, and areas associated with endemic schistosomiasis, including parts of Africa
and the Middle East . The appropriate treatment of patients with bladder cancer mandates early
detection and regular follow up for recurrences . Currently, cystoscopy is the standard method
for diagnosing and monitoring bladder cancer recurrence, but it is an invasive and relatively
costly technique, and may sometimes be inconclusive, particularly in cases of cystitis .

Patients and methods:
western blot and specific immunoglobulin-G antibody were used to
identify the urinary NMP marker. Urine samples from 123 patients
with bladder cancer and 50 controls were evaluated using the developed SDS-PAGE, Western
blot and ELISA.

Results: the NMP marker was identified in the urine of
patients with bladder cancer at 52 kDa (NMP-
52) by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. In addition, the NMP-52 tumor marker was not
detected in the urine
of patients .

Conclusion:
detecting the urinary NMP-52 marker using SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA,
would be helpful in the rapid diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Keywords:
bladder, tumor, marker, NMP, urine, diagnosis, SDS - PAGE, Western blot , ELISA

Introduction

The highest incidence rates of bladder
recurrences (Lopez et al., 2003). Currently,
cancer are generally found in industrially
cystoscopy is the standard method for
developed countries, particularly North
diagnosing and monitoring bladder cancer
America and
recurrence, but it is an invasive and
Western Europe, and areas associated with
relatively costly technique, and may
endemic schistosomiasis, including parts of
sometimes be inconclusive, particularly in
Africa and the Middle East (El-Mawla et
cases of cystitis (Clayman et al., 1984) and
al., 2001). The appropriate treatment of
(Walker et al., 1993). Also, routine
patients with bladder cancer mandates early
urinary cytology commonly used in
detection and regular follow up for
conjunction with cystoscopy is costly,
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40 : 314 - 334

Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Echis pyramidium Snake Venom:
Biochemical and Immunological Aspects

*Adel G. El-Missiry, ***Esmat A. Shaban, **Mohamed R. Mohamed, *Ahmed A.
Ahmed, **Nadia M. Abdallah and *Manal I. Moustafa
*Medical Research Center faculty of medicine Ain Shams University.
** Department Of biochemistry Faculty of Science Ain Shams University
***Department of Drug Radiation Research National Center for Radiation Research
and Technology Atomic Energy Authority

Abstract

The effect of a single LD50 dose of native Echis pyramidum venom (27.69g/mouse) on
the activities of certain serum enzymes levels: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine
aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase
(LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) were studied.
Samples from the serum were collected 4hr following LD50 venom dose intraperitonealy
injected in male Swiss albino mice. The activities of these enzymes showed significant elevation
compared to the non-envenomated group. In contrast, an equivalent dose of 1.5 kGy irradiated
Echis pyramidum venom (27.69g/mouse) did not cause any significant increase compared to
non-envenomated group.
The effect of a dose that is equivalent to LD50 (13.8 g/50 l) of native Echis pyramidum
venom on plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) induced a significant increase of creatine
phosphokinase (CPK) level compared to normal control (P<0.01). In contrast, an equivalent
dose of 1.5 kGy irradiated Echis pyramidum venom showed non significant difference in
creatine phosphokinase activity when compared to the normal control. Light microscopic
examinations of gastrocenemius muscles of mice injected with native Echis pyramidum venom
( LD50; 13.8g/50l) showed fragmentation, disorganization, loss of myofibrils in some of the
muscle fibers, hemorrhage in-between the muscle fibers and mononuclear cellular infiltration.
While light microscopic examinations of gastrocenemius muscles of mice injected with 1.5 kGy
irradiated Echis pyramidum venom (13.8g/50l; a dose identical to that used from native
venom) showed that most muscle fibers were of normal appearance except for small area of
fragmentation and disorganized myofibrils and oedema of the intercellular connective tissue.
Double immunodiffusion test revealed a similar reactivity for native, 1 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 3 kGy
irradiated Echis pyramidum venoms against a commercial polyvalent Egyptian antivenin. The
visible lines obtained in the immunodiffusion reactions were identical and joined smoothly at
the corners, indicating that there was no change in their antigenic reactivity. These results
demonstrate that the ability of the venom antigens to react with its corresponding antibodies was
maintained in spite of being exposed to radiation doses of 1 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 3 kGy.
Both antivenins raised against native or 1.5 kGy irradiated venoms recognized Echis
pyramidum
venom when submitted to protein blotting, but the anti 1.5 kGy irradiated venom
show a higher intensity bands than the antivenin raised against native Echis pyramidum venom,
in spite of having less neutralizing activity (native neutralize 50 LD50, 1.5 kGy irradiated
neutralize 40 LD50), this indicates that antibodies were formed not only for toxic fraction but
also for non toxic fraction.
Irradiation of the whole Echis Pyramidium Venom with 1.5KGy reduced its lethality 12.5 times
though keeping its immunogenicity. The 1.5KGy dose was shown to be the best radiation dose
to promote detoxification without significantly affecting its immunogenicity. Thus results of this
study confirm the conclusion that radiation is a suitable way to detoxify Echis Pyramidium
Venom without affecting its immunogenicity provided that proper dose is used.

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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 335-349

Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact
On Male Albino Rats

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy and
Omnia Nasr Abdel-Rahman Mohamed
Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education,
Ain Shams University

Abstract

The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration
(interperitoneal injection) of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for
two periods (7 and 21 days), using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth,
haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The
results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when
compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight
change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant
increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine
levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the
experiment.

Key words: food additives, amaranth, haematological, biochemical, parameters, albino rats.

Introduction

According
to
the
Food
Protection
60-70% of all dyes used in food and textile
Committee of Food and Nutrition Board,
manufacture. Azo dyes are much more
food additives may be defined as
stable than most of the natural food dyes.
substances or a mixture of substances, other
They are stable in the whole pH range of
than the basic food-stuffs, which are found
foods, are heat stable and do not fade when
in the foods as a result of any aspect of
exposed to light or oxygen. This makes azo
production,
processing,
storage
or
dyes applicable in nearly all foods.
packaging. Food additives are used for
Despite the benefits attributed to food
various purposes, including preservation,
additives, for several years there have also
coloring or sweetening. The wide range of
been a number of concerns regarding the
food additives, running into more than 2500
potential short- and long-term risks of
items used to preserve, dye or enhance
consuming these substances. Criticisms of
foods are a consequence of industrialization
these food additives are concerned with
and the development of food processing
both indirect and direct impacts of using
technology. Most coloring agents are used
them. More attention was focused on the
to improve the overall attractiveness of
pathophysiological effects of coloring
food. A number of natural and synthetic
additives.
The
biochemical
and
additives are used to color foods. Although
histopathological examinations of the toxic
synthetic coloring agents are continued to
effects of synthetic dyes were tested. There
be used extensively, there has been a
has been an extensive ongoing research on
concomitant significant increasing interest
the deleterious effects induced by synthetic
concerning the using of natural colorants.
food coloring agents in rats (Paumgartten
Azo dyes are one of these food
et al., 2002; Kitamura et al., 2003;
additives which widely used as food
Bautista et al., 2004 and Attia et al.,
colorants. They account for approximately
2005).
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 350 - 364

Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Modifies the Effect of L-Carnitine,
Curcumin, Garlic Powder and Green tea Extract on Doxorubicin-Induced
Nephropathy in Rats

Rasha R. Radwan*, Esmat A. Shaban*, Hesham A. Salem and Sanaa A. Kenawy
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, CairoUni.
* Department of drug radiation research, National Center for Radiation Research and
Technology, Atomic Energy Authority.


Abstract

The possible protective potential of exposure to low dose of radiation in presence or
absence of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract was examined in the
present study on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced experimental nephropathy in rats. Preliminary
study was carried out to select the suitable dose of DOX to induce nephrotoxicity. In the current
experiment 5 mg/kg, i.p. was selected as a single dose to induce nephrotoxicity during 15 days.
The possible modulating effect of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract on
kidney function was examined. Animals were subdivided into three sets. Three groups of the 1st
set were exposed to radiation at a single dose level of 0.3 Gy then received DOX, 1, 3 or 7
days postirradiation respectively. The groups of 2nd set daily received L-carnitine (40 mg/kg,
i.p.), curcumin (50 mg/kg, i.p.), garlic powder (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and green tea extract (300
mg/kg, p.o.) daily for two weeks before induction of nephropathy. Groups of the 3rd set received
the same doses of drugs then were injected with DOX, 1, 3 or 7 days following irradiation
respectively. Two groups of animals, one of them received saline and served as normal and the
other received DOX and served as nephropathic group were included in 1st, 2nd as well as 3rd set.
Fifteen days following DOX administration, serum was collected and the animals were then
sacrificed. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid were evaluated. Data revealed that, a single
DOX dose (5 mg/kg) induced marked acute nephrotoxicity manifested as significant increase in
the activities of serum creatinine, urea as well as uric acid. Interestingly, pre-exposure to
radiation at a dose level of 0.3 Gy, 1 or 3 days before DOX injection exhibited significant
improvement in the above altered mentioned parameters. However, exposure to low dose
radiation 7 days prior to DOX administration did not show a protective effect. Moreover,
pretreatment with L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract in rats unexposed or
exposed to radiation before DOX administration ameliorated, to a great extent, the effects
induced by DOX. The present findings suggest that exposure to a single low dose of radiation
(0.3 Gy) one day before DOX administration is a promising approach for maximizing the
nephroprotective effects of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract with
minimal adverse effects of DOX.

Key words: doxorubicin, 0.3 Gy radiation, L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder, green tea
extract, creatinine, urea and uric acid.

Introduction
still treated with this compound because of

its benefits, (Singal et al., 2000).
Doxorubicin
(DOX)
is
an
The exact mechanism of DOX
anthracycline antibiotic that has been used
induced nephrotoxicity is not yet well
for treatment of a wide variety of cancers
known. However, cellular damage induced
(Singal and Iliskovic, 1998). Cancers such
by DOX is mediated by the formation of an
as pancreatic, and endometrial carcinomas
iron anthracyclin free radical (Powis, 1989)
despite being less responsive to DOX, are
which in turn causes severe damage to the
plasma membrane (Algria et al., 1990).
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 365 - 374

Total IgE and Absolute Eosinophils Count as a Predictor of Allergic
Diseases in Children

* Hamid Habib, ** Moufag Tayeb, *** Majdy Qutub, **** Jamil Samkari.
**** Abdulrahman Abu Dawood.

* Consultant Pediatrician, Dean Faculty of Medicine Rabigh - King Abdul Aziz
University (KAU), **Assistant Professor Faculty of Medicine - Rabigh - KAU.
***Consultant Family Physician, King Abdul Aziz University Hospital.
****Demonstrator Faculty of Medicine - Rabigh KAU.

Abstract

Objective: To study the role of both serum total IgE levels and the absolute eosinophils count,
total IgE alone, absolute eosinophils count alone as a marker of allergy in children, and to see
their association with the host factors (age and sex)

Methods
: A retrospective study was conducted at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital
Jeddah (KAUH), during the year 2008. Three hundred children below the age of fifteen years
meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Serum total IgE levels and absolute
eosinophils count were done in all patients. Data was collected and tabulated. Chi-square was
applied to test the association of the variables using SPSS and p-value of <0.05 was taken as
statistically significant.

Results
: Out of 300 patients, 27(9%) had raised both serum total IgE and absolute eosinophils
count, 146(48.67%) had raised serum total IgE alone, 40(13.3%) had raised absolute eosinophils
count alone. Both IgE plus absolute eosinophilic count, total IgE alone and absolute
eosinophilic count alone are not significantly related to the child sex with (P-values 0.759,
0.742, 0.699) respectively, however all are related significantly to the child age (P-values
<0.004, <0.001, <0.012) respectively. All are not related significantly to systemic allergies
except the significant relation between the absolute eosinophils count with atopic dermatitis (P-
value <0.031)

Conclusion
: Serum total IgE level and absolute eosinophils count, total IgE alone and absolute
eosinophils count alone are not a good predictor of allergy in children except that the absolute
eosinophils count can be considered as a strong predictor of atopic dermatitis in children. It's
clear now, that as the child age increase the positivity of all the tests increase also.


Introduction

There is growing evidence that the

prevalence of allergic diseases such as
It's well known that allergic diseases
asthma, hay fever and eczema is increasing
can be associated with each others. Rhinitis
worldwide (Beasley 2000. Downs 2001).
has a strong association with asthma and
Although there is greater awareness of
atopic dermatitis in preschool children
allergy, it is not easy to assess the true
(Peroni et al, 2003). Individuals with
prevalence because many people do not
concomitant allergic rhinitis and asthma
consult health professionals for their
complain of a higher rate of asthma attacks
symptoms and some will self-medicate
and more emergency room visits than
using over the counter medications (Walker
others without concomitant allergic rhinitis
et al, 2005).
(Bouquet et al, 2005).
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 375 - 388

Optimization of fibrinase productivity from Actinomycetes

Habib S. A.1, Abo doubara M. I. 2, Abdel-Malak Camelia. A.1, and Badawy Rasha.
M. 1
1- Chemistry Department (Biochemistry Division), Faculty of Science (Damietta),
Mansoura University, Egypt.
2- Botany Department, Faculty of Science (Damietta), Mansoura University, Egypt.

Abstract

Background: Fibrinolytic enzymes that dissolve blood clots and show promise for thrombosis
therapy have been successfully identified from various sources. A wide range of
microorganisms has been screened for their fibrinolytic properties. A fibrinolytic protease has
been isolated from Streptomyces violaceoruber and Streptomyces spiroverticillatus culture
filtrate.

Methods :
The purification procedure involved ammonium sulphate fractionation, dialysis,
calcium phosphate gel purification and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. By using native
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE) to determine molecular weight of the
enzyme.

Results :
The optimum temperature for the high production of fibrinase from S. violaceoruber
was 30oC and from S. spiroverticillatus was 35oC and the optimum pH was 9.0. The best
incubation period is 6 days. The incorporation of lactose as carbon source, yeast extract as
nitrogen source and MnCl2 to culture media highly increased the production of fibrinase from
the two species. The molecular weight was about 30 KDa.

Conclusion:
It exhibited fibrinolytic enzyme activity. In vitro studies revealed that fibrinase
dissolves clots made by blood.

Key words:
Fibrinase, Fibrinolytic enzyme, streptomyces, fibrin clots

Introduction

Hemostasis is a complex process obtained
microorganisms has been screened for their
through an optimal balance between
fibrinolytic properties (Takeno et al.,
bleeding and blood clot formation. In an
1999). Fibrinase is defined as a fibrin
unbalanced state, fibrin clots may not be
stabilizing
plasma
enzyme
lysed resulting in thrombosis (Pandee et
(Transglutaminases) that is activated by
al., 2008). Thrombolytic agents from
Thrombin and calcium to form Factor
various sources have been extensively
XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the
investigated. Enzymes, such as urokinase,
formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which
streptokinase and tissues plasminogen
culminates
the
coagulation
cascade.
activators have been widely used in the
Organisms producing fibrinolytic enzymes
treatment of thrombosis. However, these
as Bacteria (Agrebi et al., 2009), Fungi
enzymes are often expensive, thermolabile
(Bin et al., 2009), Plants (Kostanova et al.,
and can produce undesirable side effects
2005), Parasites (Motoyashiki et al., 2003),
(Chitte and Dey, 2000).
Snakes (Girn et al., 2008), Nattokinase
Fibrinolytic enzymes that dissolve blood
(Gordon 2005), Cloning of earthworm and
clots and show promise for thrombosis
Escherichia coli (Li ., 2007), cloning of
therapy have been successfully identified
Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris (Yang
from various sources. A wide range of
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 389 - 401

Expression of p-selectin (CD62p) on Platelets as activated marker in
preeclampsia .

Alshimaa A . Abdel-Latif * , Fawzia A. EL.Sheshtawy** , Amany A. Bauomy**
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department * , Clinical Pathology**, Faculty of Medicine
for Girls- Al Azhar University


Abstract

Background : Pre-eclampsia is a medical condition in which hypertension arises in
pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association with significant amounts of protein
in the urine. Pre-eclampsia may develop from 20 weeks gestation (it is considered early onset
before 32 weeks, which is associated with increased morbidity) .Platelets play an important role
in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of preeclampsia.


Aim: The aim of this work was to study the platelet activation state by flow cytometer
analysis of platelet expression of CD62p in patients with preeclampsia.

Methods: This study was conducted on ten cases of mild preeclampsia (group I), their ages
range was 22- 36 years and ten cases of severe preeclampsia(group II) their ages range was
20-35 years .Also ten normotensive pregnant women were included as a control group (group
III) . The percentage of platelets expression of the CD61 , CD62p and MFI were analyzed by
the flow- cytometr .

Results: The mean percentage of CD62p expression on platelets and MFI were
67. 3% and 6.5 respectively in mild preeclampsia compared with 3.7 % and 1.5 in
normotensive pregnant as control ( p < 0.01 and p < 0.015 respectively ) . Also the mean
percentage of CD62p expression on platelets and MFI were 73.3% and 2.1 respectively in
severe preeclampsia, They showed significant increase when compared with normotensive
pregnant as control ( p < 0.01 and p < 0.015 respectively ). There were a positive significant
correlation between % of expression of CD 62p on platelets and SBP, DBP, protein in urine ,
and % CD61. While a negative significant correlation between % of expression of CD 62p on
platelets and age, platelet count and CD62P MFI was found .

Conclusion : : High levels of platelet glycoprotein CD62p expressions in patients with mild
and severe preeclampsia, could be a compensatory mechanism for the preeclampsia induced
thrombocytopenia .

Key words : CD 61 , CD62p , Flow- Cytometry , preeclampsia.


Introduction
are substances from the placenta that can
cause endothelial dysfunction in the
Pre-eclampsia is a medical condition in
maternal blood vessels of susceptible
which hypertension arises in pregnancy
women .While blood pressure elevation is
(pregnancy-induced
hypertension)
in
the most visible sign of the disease, it
association with significant amounts of
involves generalized damage to the
protein in the urine. Pre-eclampsia refers to
maternal endothelium, kidneys, and liver,
a set of symptoms rather than any causative
with the release of vasoconstrictive factors
factor, and there are many different causes
being secondary to the original damage
for the condition. It appears likely that there
(Andrus and Wolfson, 2010 ).
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 402 - 410

Effects of sublethal doses of selected botanical molluscicides on oxygen
consumption of the brown garden snail, Eobania vermiculata.

Samir Mohamed H. Beltagi, Mohammed Salah. Ab. Ab. Al-Shinnawy, Nabawy
Abdel-Rahman I. Elkattan and Hany Nady Yousef

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Fac. of Education, Ain Shams
University
Abstract

Laboratory bioassays were carried out for evaluating the efficacy of certain plant materials
including Nicotine, Thymol, Menthol, Caffeine and Camphor as molluscicides against the
brown garden snail, Eobania vermiculata using the topical application method. The obtained
results proved that Nicotine and Thymol were the most promising from the molluscicidal point
of view with LD50 204.02 and 551.20g/snail for the two materials, respectively. The effects of
sublethal doses (LD25 and LD50) of the most potent materials, Thymol and Nicotine, on the
oxygen consumption of E. vermiculata snails after 1, 7 and 15 days post treatment were
evaluated. Results indicated that only snails treated with LD50 Thymol showed significant
decrease in their oxygen uptake; while all the other treatments stimulated significant increase in
the oxygen consumption along the three periods of estimation. This stimulation was most
pronounced with the low sublethal doses of the both examined botanical molluscicides. The
succession of time post exposure did not enable the treated snails to eliminate the adverse
effects of the applied materials.

Depending on the results of the current investigation, we can conclude that the both examined
botanical materials, Thymol and Nicotine, are effective in killing the agricultural pest E.
vermiculata
but further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these materials as safe and
economic molluscicides in the field.

Keywords:
Molluscicides; Thymol; Nicotine; Snails; Eobania vermiculata; Oxygen
Consumption.

Introduction

In Egyptian fields, the terrestrial snail, E.
potential uses as commercial pesticides in
vermiculata,
family
Helicidae,
is
the hope that they might provide cheap,
considered as one of the most agricultural
locally
produced,
biodegradable,
pests causing a great damage to all plant
environmentally safe and effective control
parts of different crops (El-Okda, 1979 and
agents.
Mahrous et al., 2002).


Oxygen uptake is one of the best indicators
Application of synthetic molluscicides is
of the overall metabolic activities of an
remaining the most effective method for
organism (Von Brand et al., 1949).
controlling mollusk pests, particularly over
Therefore, beside the conventional bioassay
large areas (Radwan et al., 1992;
methods for testing molluscicidal action,
Schuytema et al, 1994 and Heiba et al,
respirometry can be used as a practical,
2002). However, their immense use has a
sensitive and accurate method for the
harmful effect on non-target species and
evaluation of molluscicides (Abel-Raheem
lead to pollution of the environment
et al., 1980).
(Godan, 1983).Therefore, much effort has
Several studies dealt with the impact of
been focused on plant materials for
different chemical compounds on the
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 402 - 410

Effects of sublethal doses of selected botanical molluscicides on oxygen
consumption of the brown garden snail, Eobania vermiculata.

Samir Mohamed H. Beltagi, Mohammed Salah. Ab. Ab. Al-Shinnawy, Nabawy
Abdel-Rahman I. Elkattan and Hany Nady Yousef

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Fac. of Education, Ain Shams
University
Abstract

Laboratory bioassays were carried out for evaluating the efficacy of certain plant materials
including Nicotine, Thymol, Menthol, Caffeine and Camphor as molluscicides against the
brown garden snail, Eobania vermiculata using the topical application method. The obtained
results proved that Nicotine and Thymol were the most promising from the molluscicidal point
of view with LD50 204.02 and 551.20g/snail for the two materials, respectively. The effects of
sublethal doses (LD25 and LD50) of the most potent materials, Thymol and Nicotine, on the
oxygen consumption of E. vermiculata snails after 1, 7 and 15 days post treatment were
evaluated. Results indicated that only snails treated with LD50 Thymol showed significant
decrease in their oxygen uptake; while all the other treatments stimulated significant increase in
the oxygen consumption along the three periods of estimation. This stimulation was most
pronounced with the low sublethal doses of the both examined botanical molluscicides. The
succession of time post exposure did not enable the treated snails to eliminate the adverse
effects of the applied materials.

Depending on the results of the current investigation, we can conclude that the both examined
botanical materials, Thymol and Nicotine, are effective in killing the agricultural pest E.
vermiculata
but further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these materials as safe and
economic molluscicides in the field.

Keywords:
Molluscicides; Thymol; Nicotine; Snails; Eobania vermiculata; Oxygen
Consumption.

Introduction

In Egyptian fields, the terrestrial snail, E.
potential uses as commercial pesticides in
vermiculata,
family
Helicidae,
is
the hope that they might provide cheap,
considered as one of the most agricultural
locally
produced,
biodegradable,
pests causing a great damage to all plant
environmentally safe and effective control
parts of different crops (El-Okda, 1979 and
agents.
Mahrous et al., 2002).


Oxygen uptake is one of the best indicators
Application of synthetic molluscicides is
of the overall metabolic activities of an
remaining the most effective method for
organism (Von Brand et al., 1949).
controlling mollusk pests, particularly over
Therefore, beside the conventional bioassay
large areas (Radwan et al., 1992;
methods for testing molluscicidal action,
Schuytema et al, 1994 and Heiba et al,
respirometry can be used as a practical,
2002). However, their immense use has a
sensitive and accurate method for the
harmful effect on non-target species and
evaluation of molluscicides (Abel-Raheem
lead to pollution of the environment
et al., 1980).
(Godan, 1983).Therefore, much effort has
Several studies dealt with the impact of
been focused on plant materials for
different chemical compounds on the
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Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 424 - 434

MTHFR gene polymorphisms as risk factors for colorectal cancer among
Egyptian patients.

Rizk A. El-baz1; Camelia A. Abdel Malak2; Saleh Ibrahim El-Awady3
Amira Kazamel4, Fatma A .El tarpely 2.
1Genetics Unit, Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Egypt
2Biochemistry Department, Damitta Faculty Of Science, Mansoura University.
3 Cancer Institute , Mansoura University, Egypt.
4 Zology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt


Abstract

Objective: Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), such as MTHFR
C677T and A1298C, are associated with several cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the
effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk in a population from damitta
Egypt. Methods. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted during 2008-2010; 64
colon cancer cases and 90 controls were enrolled. Information was collected and blood samples
were obtained for assay of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms by polymerase chain
reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and PCR-restriction fragment
length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. Associations between variables of interest and
colorectal cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results: Increased risk of
colorectal cancer was associated with the MTHFR C677 TT genotype of C677T polymorphism
(OR(adj) = 24.0; 95% CI: 1.34-429.1; P value for interaction = 0.001) . The 1298AC genotype
and C allele was associated with a statistically significant lower risk among subjects (OR, 3.85;
95% CI, 1.78-8.33; P value for interaction=.0005 and OR,1.88 ;95% CI, 1.16-3.059 P value for
interaction=0.01), respectively. MTHFR 1298 AA genotype and A allele was found to be
associated with a significantly decreased risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-
0.52; P value for interaction= 0.0005 and OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.85 P value for interaction=
0.01and ), respectively . There was no clear relation between colorectal adenomas and those
with the 1298 CC genotype. The combined CC , AA [corrected] genotypes and the CT+AA
[corrected] genotypes and the TT+ AC were associated with a statistically significant lower
risk for developing colorectal cancer (P value for interaction= 0.03 , 0.02 , 0.001), respectively .

CONCLUSIONS:
The findings suggest an interaction between the MTHFR genotype and
colorectal adenomas among Egyptian patients.
Abbreviations: T2DM: Colorectal cancer MTHFR: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism- SSP-PCR: sequence specific primer- polymerase chain
reaction.
Key words: MTHFR gene - Colorectal cancer.

Introduction

,
2006).
Methylenetetrahydrofolate

reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme which
Colorectal cancer is one of the most
catalyzes the reduction of 5, 10-
common cancers in the world, accounting
methylenetetrahydrofolate
to
5-
for nearly 10% of new cases of all cancers
methyltetrahydrofolate
(MTHF),
the
(Parkin, et al . , 2005). The incidence of
predominant circulatory form of folate and
colorectal cancer varies substantially
carbon donor for the re-methylation of
worldwide, with high rates in Western
homocysteine to methionine (Donnelly,
countries and low rates in African and
2001
and
Fowler,
2005).
Several
Asian countries in general (Stewart et al .
polymorphisms have been described that
result in amino acid changes, which could
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Full Paper (vol.40 paper# 11)


Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 435 - 441

Case Repert (Polymyositis and Interstitial Lung Disease associated with
renal involvement)

Jafar Al-Momani, Khalid Al-Nadi, Kher Mbeidin, Moh'd Najada, Abdullah Al-
Omari
Pulmonary Division, Medicine Department, King Hussein Medical Center, Amman-
Jordan.


Abstract

Polymyositis with interstitial lung disease, renal involvement and positive Anti-Jo-1 antibodies
in a 39-year-old male is reported. He presented with cough, dyspnoea and proximal muscle
weakness. Chest imaging by X-ray and CT-scan showed wide spread reticulo-nodular densities.
Urine analysis revealed RBCs Casts and albumiuria. Open lung biopsy revealed Non-specific
interstitial pneumonia and muscle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of polymyositis. Treating the
patient with Prednisolone and Azathioprine showed dramatic improvement.

Introduction



39yr old male patient smoker 20 pack year
Polymyositis (PM) is an idiopathic
with no previous medical illnesses,
inflammatory myopathy with symmetric
hospitalized in a peripheral hospital
proximal muscle weakness, elevated
complaining of cough, dyspnoea and low
skeletal muscle enzyme levels, and
grade fever diagnosed as a case of
characteristic electromyography (EMG) and
pneumonia given intravenous antibiotic and
muscle biopsy findings.The reported
discharged after one week. Three weeks
incidence
of
ILD
in
later patient was admitted to our hospital
polymyositis/dermatomyositis
varies
complaining of cough dyspnoea and lower
between 5% and 46% in earlier cross-
limb weakness. His physical examination
sectional studies, depending on whether
showed diffuse bilateral end inspiratory
clinical,
radiologic,
functional,
or
crackles on chest examination and proximal
pathologic criteria have been used. Renal
muscle weakness of the lower limbs and
manifestations include intrinsic renal
lower limbs oedema.
disease which is very rare. Occasionally,
His chest X- ray showed bilateral lung
severe rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria
infiltrates, and his laboratory data shown in
can result in acute tubular necrosis.
(table 1).

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Full Paper (vol.40 paper# 12)


Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Sep. 2010) Vol., 40: 442-455

MULTI-BIOMARKER RESPONSES TO BIOACCUMULATION
of DICLOFOP-METHYL in FRESHWATER
FISH (Oreochromis niloticus).

Gamila, A. M. Kotb1; Sherif, H. Abd Al-Rahman2; Ahmed, A. Gh. Farag3 and
Manal E.A. Elhalwagy1
1-
Mammalian and Aquatic Toxicology Dept.,
2- Pesticides Residues and Environmental Pollution Dept.,
Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.
3- Plant Protection Dept., Agriculture Faculty, Zagazig University, Egypt .

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to assess the environmental hazards presented
to wildlife by new pesticides or new uses of established pesticides, biochemical
changes, residual behavior and accumulation of diclofop-methyl (Iloxan 36 % EC) . A
laboratory trials of diclofop-methyl were carried out on tilapia fish, Oreochromis
niloticus as indicator species to . Acute toxicity of diclofop-methyl (Iloxan 36 %
EC) was carried out and the median lethal concentration for 96 hours (96 h - LC50)
value was 1.89 mg / l. In the present study, two groups of fish were exposed to two sub
lethal concentrations selected on the basis of 1 / 10 (0.19 mg / l, low concentration) and
1 / 3 (0.63 mg / l, high concentration) of diclofop-methyl LC50 value for 28 days under
the laboratory conditions compared to the control group. The treatments indicated that a
gradual bioaccumulation of herbicide with time in whole fish was more pronounced
than in muscle. Several criteria for estimating pesticide accumulation effect were
studied on different biochemical parameters in plasma of fish after treatments. The
results indicated that alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as albumin and glucose levels increased
significantly after treatment with both concentrations comparing to control group.
However, significant increase in aspartate aminotransferases (AST) and total protein
levels with was recorded low concentration (0.19 mg / l) only. On the other hand, high
concentration (0.63mg / l) caused significant increase in urea levels. However,
ceriatinine level was decreased in both exposed concentrations. Noticeable changes in
antioxidants biomarkers were recorded , a reduction in SH-protein level accompanied
with an elevation in lipid peroxidation biomarker (MDA) were recorded in plasma after
treatment with two concentrations. The previous results were accompanied with
noticeable alterations in plasma and muscle protein patterns in both treated groups.


Key words: Diclofop-methyl, Herbicide, Bioaccumulation, Metabolic biomarkers,
Fish, Oreochromis
niloticus.

Introduction
environment presenting a potential

hazard risk. Herbicides originating from
Pesticides are used in agricultural
agricultural activity enter the aquatic
treatments to reduce the negative impact
environment
through
atmospheric
of pests. Despite this benefit, the use of
deposition, surface run-off or leaching
this kind of chemicals must be
and frequently accumulate in soft-
controlled because an important fraction
bottom
sediments
and
aquatic
of these pesticides are released into the
organisms (Miles and Pfeuffer, 1997;
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