QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 610 620

Physiological and Histopathological Effects of Tributyletin (TBT) on
Lymnaea natalensis and Physa acuta.

El-feky F; Raafat1 H A; and Kamal1 H
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Girls Branch Al-Azhar University, Cairo,
Egypt,
1Zoology Department, Girls Collage for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain-Shams
University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract:

Background:
Two hermaphrodite snails Lymnaea natalensis and Physa acuta , the most
abaundant gastropods in Nile River was investigated to determine the effect of Tributyletin
oxide (TBT) on some physiological parameters and histopathological changes in the ovotestis of
both snails.
Methods: Nine plastic gars (six treated and three control sets) were used for each species of
snails. Every aquaria contained 2 l. of dechlorenated water with concentration of 2 ppm of TBT.
Samples of heamolymph and ovotestis tissues were taken after 2 and 4 weeks.
Results: The physiological data revealed that the concentration of glucose, cholesterol, calcium,
total proteins, albumin, and globulin changed from one species to the other in different
responses and according to time of exposure.
The histological data of the hermaphrodite gland or the ovotestis of both snails showed
disturbances in differentiation and maturation process, cellular degeneration was also observed.
Conclusion: Due to the hazardous effects of TBT on the physiology and the histology of the
ovotestis of both snail species, more research on the impact of TBT or related compounds has to
be conducted. The use of TBT as antifouling agent has to be restricted in the developing
countries and replace it by related compounds with less or no side effects.

Introduction

During the last decades, the scientists
concentrations in the range of 010 g l- 1
especially marine biologists have been
has been investigated (Leung et al., 2007).
concerned with new type of pollutants
They observed that egg development was
associated with antifouling paints known as
completely inhibited at 10 g l.- 1
organotin group (Meador, 1997; Gooding
The major mode of action of TBT as other
et al., 1999; Hall et al., 2000; Amr, 2004).
organotin group is that they act as hormonal
Tributyltin TBT is one of the most powerful
disruptor for many marine organisms,
antifouling agents which have been found
especially mollusca (Gibbs and Bryan,
in sediments and surface water (Fent,
1996a). This hormonal disruption includes
1996). Organotin compounds such as TBT
the development of male organs in
and Triphenyletin (TPT) are used also as
gastropod females. This syndrome is known
stabilizers in plastics, pesticides control of
as imposex which can lead to sterilization
schistosomiasis and antifungal action in
and finally death. (Bech 2002; Marshall
textiles and industrial water systems.
and Rajkumar, 2003 and Terlizzi et al.,
(Amr, 2004).
2004).
Different species of water organisms were
Imposex is thought to be irreversible and
severelly affected by TBT toxicity. TBT
normal egg lying can be prevented and
has been demonstrated to cause impairment
ultimately results in a population decline
in growth, development, reproduction and
(Bryan et al., 1986).
survival of many marine species (Haggera
In some species, imposex is typically
et al., 2005). Recently, chronic toxicity,
induced by TBT and TPT. Only a few
growth and reproduction in the freshwater
reports, however, have presented evidence
gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to
for population level effects of reproductive
waterborne TBT over a range of four
failure due to imposex.
610


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d:\skydrive\Jor\vol37_2 The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 621-629


Comparative Study of Three Sedative Techniques During Shock Wave
Lithotripsy.
Dr. Wafaa G. Ahmed
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care,
Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University


Abstract:


Background:
Many authors found that dexmedetomidine is an effective, safe drug for sedation
during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Dexmedetomidine is a lipophilic 2-
agonist ,which sedates patients by reducing sympathetic activity and the level of arousal ,thus
patients lie calmly in beds but are easily roused to full consciousness. In the present study, the
sedative, haemodynamics, and respiratory effects, and recovery time of dexmedetomidine and
dexmedetomidine/fentanyl combination were compared to one of the commonly used sedative
analgesic regimen (midazolam/fentanyl) in patients undergoing lithotripsy.

Methods:
Sixty ASA I - II patients undergoing (ESWL) were divided into three equal groups
and were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine (dex group), dexmedetomidine
fentanyl combination (dex/fentanyl group) or midazolam fentanyl (midazolam/fentanyl group) .
In dex group: Initial loading dose of dex 1 g/kg was infused for 10 min followed by continuous
infusion 0.1-0.7 g/kg/h. In dex/fentanyl group, initial dose of 1 g/kg dex was infused over 10
min followed by continuous infusion 0.1-0.7 g/kg/h. At the same time, fentanyl infusion
started 1 g/kg over 10 min. In midazolam/fenatnyl group, midazolam 0.05 mg/kg and fentanyl
1 g/kg were infused over 10 min followed by continuous infusion of normal saline. Heart rate
(HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and respiratory rate were
recorded. Pain intensity was evaluated with a visual analog scale. Depth of sedation was
monitored using Ramsay sedation score (RSS). Recovery time, rescue analgesic and sedative
were recorded.

Results:
In all groups, no significant changes in oxygen saturation and respiratory rate were
observed. In dex and dex/fentanyl groups there was a significant decrease in heart rate and mean
arterial pressure during and post procedure. Supplemental fentanyl was required in 80% of
patients in dex group to achieve a satisfactory level of analgesia (vs. 25% of patients in
dex/fentanyl group and 40% of patients in midazolam/fentanyl group). Also 70% of patients in
dex group received rescue midazolam vs. 15% in dex/fentanyl group and 20% in
midazolam/fentanyl group. Time to home readiness was longer in dex,and dex/fentanyl groups
than in midazolam/fentanyl group(80, 75, and 44 min), respectively.

Conclusion:
Dexmedetomidine alone does not appear to be suitable for sedation in patients
undergoing ESWL. Combination of dexmedetomidine with fentanyl can be used safely and
effectively for sedation and analgesia during ESWL, so it could be an alternative to
conventional midazolam/fentanyl regimen but it is associated with longer recovery time.
Keywords; Sedation - Lithotripsy Dexmedetomidine Fentanyl Midazolam.










621


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Introduction
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37 : 630-643

Effect of Coconut Oil Administration on
Some Hemostatic Changes
Associated with Obesity in Rats

Fatma Ahmed Mohamed, Nehal Mohammad Bahgat,
Gehane M. Hamed, and Rania S.A. Eisa *
Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Abstract
In the last few decades, coconut oil was claimed to have some beneficial health effects,
attributed mainly to its medium chain triglycerides. It was, thus, intriguing to investigate the
potential benefit of coconut oil in alleviating the prothrombotic tendency often encountered in
obese individuals. The present study was carried out on 44 rats, of both sexes, aged 10 days at the
start of the study. 31 out of 44 rats were offered high caloric diet (the cafeteria diet) for induction
of obesity. Rats were allocated into the following groups: Group1: Control rats (C) (n=13 rats),
comprising rats fed on the standard chow diet all-over the study period (24 weeks). Group2:
Cafeteria diet-fed rats (Caf)
(n=16 rats), comprising rats fed on cafeteria diet until the end of
the study period and Group3: Cafeteria diet/coconut oil-fed rats (Caf/Coco) (n=15 rats),
comprising rats fed on cafeteria diet with coconut oil starting from the 16th week till the end of
the study period. At the end of the study, the BMI was assessed in the 3 studied groups and blood
samples were collected for determination of platelet count and aggregation, prothrombin time
(PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrin degradation products (FDPs), and
plasma lipid profile. The encountered results revealed that the mean BMI of the cafeteria diet-fed
rats was significantly higher than the BMI of control rats, and that the mean BMI of rats receiving
cafeteria/coconut oil diet for 9 weeks was significantly decreased compared to their matched caf
group. The PT, APTT and platelet count were all non significantly different in the three studied
groups. Platelet aggregation, on the other hand, was significantly increased in the caf group
compared to the control group, and significantly decreased in the caf/coco group compared to
both the caf group and the control group. The plasma FDPs levels were not significantly different
in the 3 studied groups. The lipid profile was insignificantly different in the 3 studied groups
except in the caf/coco group which revealed a significant elevation of total cholesterol and HDL-
c compared to caf group. The present findings, thus, point to the possible beneficial effect of
coconut oil feeding on obesity - induced enhanced platelet aggregation.

{* From M.Sc. Thesis, Physiology department}

Introduction

al., 2005).
The prevalence of obesity is
In many areas of Sri Lanka, the
increasing
worldwide,
although
the
coconut tree and its products have for
proportion varies from country to country
centuries been an integral part of life, and it
and between geographical areas within a
has come to be called the "Tree of life".
country (WHO, 1998). Obesity is known to
However, in the last few decades, the
predispose to a number of cardiovascular
relationship between coconut fats and health
risk factors, including hypertension, elevated
has been the subject of much debate. Around
cholesterol and impaired glucose tolerance
92% of these fats are saturated fats, which
(WHO report, 2000). Also, Obese
led to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for
individuals are known to be susceptible to
health', particularly in relation to ischemic
thrombotic diseases, though the underlying
heart disease. Yet, since most of the
mechanism is still unknown (Yamamoto et
saturated fats in coconut oil are medium
630


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QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 644-655

Evaluation of Diet Quality of Egyptian Children and Adolescents using
Healthy Eating Index

Mervat A. Esmail Wafaa M.A.Saleh Nebal A.R.Aboul Ella Asmaa M. Abd
Allah
National Nutrition Institute Cairo - Egypt

Abstract:

Background:
Healthful eating is essential for development and well-being. Some dietary patterns are
associated with 4 of the 10 leading causes of death (coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke,
and type 2 diabetes). Major improvements in the health of the public can, therefore, be made by
improving people's dietary patterns. The U.S. department of Agriculture has developed an index, called
the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) that was updated in the year 2002. It is based on different aspects of a
healthful diet; the Index is designed to provide a measure of overall dietary quality, and the compliance
with specific Dietary Guidelines recommendations. The aim of our study is to use the healthy eating index
to assess the diet quality of a representative sample of the Egyptian children and adolescents and to
examine the association between body mass index and caloric intake of the studied sample.

Materials & Methods:
This study is a part of National Egyptian survey, Diet, Nutrition and Prevention
of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases. The Healthy Eating Index was applied with slight modifications
to measure how well the studied Egyptian students' diet conforms to recommended healthy eating pattern.
The data were based on representative sample (2145) of children and adolescents (10 -18) years in 7
governorates from. One day of dietary intake data (24 hours recall) was collected, during an in-person
interview. The Healthy Eating Index measures how well the studied children and adolescents' diets
conform to the American Dietary Guidelines recommendations and the Food Guide Pyramid applied in
our country. Ten dietary components have been identified and the overall Index has a total possible score
ranging from zero to 100.

Results:
Our results showed that the average Healthy Eating Index score was 59.1 out of a possible 100
and it ranged from 20 to 86, Only 0.5 percent of the students had Healthy Eating scores above 80; while
16.9 percent of them received scores below 50 and the majority (82.5 percent) had scores on the Healthy
Eating Index between 51 and 80. In an effort to provide a "rating" of the overall student's diet, a grading
scale was developed, the majority of students had diets rated as "Needs Improvement", only 0.5 %
received diets rated as "Good" and 16.9 % had diets rated as "Poor". Males achieved a slightly higher
average Index than females (59.7 Vs 58.2). The average score for food groups is much lower than that for
dietary guidelines (23.5 Vs 35.6) out of total score of 50 for each. There was a significant positive
correlation of BMI with caloric intake for male adolescents while, for females the correlation was
insignificant and negative. More than 80 percent of the sample achieved the recommendations of the
American Dietary Guidelines for total fat and cholesterol. Less than two-thirds of the students met the
recommendations for saturated fat, Almost 30 percent of the students had the maximum score for sodium.
Only 1.0 percent of them received a score of 10 for fibers.

Conclusion:
the majority of Egyptian children and adolescent' eating patterns, as measured by the HEI,
need improvement. The results of the Index are useful in targeting nutrition education and health
promotion activities, as it is a single summary measure of diet quality that can be used to monitor changes
in food consumption patterns over time. A Food Quality System based on nutrient density can be one tool
that can facilitate more healthful food purchases and dietary patterns.

Keywords:
Evaluation Diet Healthy Index Adolescents
644


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QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 656-663

Histological Effects of Cystic Echinococcosis on the Liver of Sheep

Nabeel Zaki Zahed
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University,
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract:

Aim of the work
: The author investigated the histological effects of hydatid cyst
(echinococcosis) on the liver of sheep.
Material and methods: This study was based on liver specimens of slaughtered sheep (twelve
of infected and four of uninfected). Specimens were collected from abattoirs at Central
Slaughterhouse area KSA. These specimens were investigated for the presence of hydatid cyst
and then examined histologically for identification of the histopathological changes.
Results: The infection with cystic echinococcosis induced significant elevation (P<0.05) in the
hepatosomatic index of infected sheep. Hydatid cysts in the liver of sheep resulted in different
histological lesions represented in inflammatory reaction, fibrosis and necrosis in the area near
to the cysts. Meanwhile the hepatocytes exhibited vacuolated cytoplasm and dilated blood
vessels and disintegration in the epithelia of the bile duct.

Key words:
Sheep, Liver, Hydatid cyst, Histology.

Introduction:



Hydatid
disease
due
to
cystic
Middle East (Schaefer JW and Khan,
echinococcosis is one of the most important
1991).
public health and economic problems in

different countries including Saudia Arabia.
Liver is the most common site of cystic
Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by the
development, in over 90% of liver cysts; the
tapeworm of Echinococcus spp. These
oncosphere is trapped in the central veins of
species
include
E.
granulosus,
E
the hepatic lobules and the resultant cyst
multilocularis, E vogeli or E oligarthrus
may be deep or superficial and it causes
(Lewis et al., 1975). These parasites live as
compression of the liver cells which can
a small intestinal tapeworm of dogs and
lead to biliary stasis and cholangitis
occasionally other carnivores (Dent and
(Kebede et al., 2009). The cyst may present
Kelly, 1976). Their larval form causes
as a liver abscess and large cyst can
hydatidosis in domestic animals and man
produce localized or diffuse hepatomegaly
(Baldock et al., 1985). The shedding of
(Moro et al., 2000). Local pathological
gravid proglottids or eggs in the feces
effects depend on the site of the hydaid
occurs within 46 weeks after infection of
cyst; ruptured liver cyst through the
the definitive host. Ingestion of eggs by
diaphragm can produce a pleural effusion or
intermediate host animals (sheep, cattle,
bronchobiliary fistula (Gerazounis et al.,
goats, horses, camels) or human results in
2002).
the release of an oncosphere into the

gastrointestinal tract, which then migrates
The parasite destroys the liver parenchyma,
to primary target organs such as liver and
bile ducts and blood vessels resulting in
lungs, and less frequently to other organs
symptoms of biliary obstruction, portal
(Amman and Eckert, 1996). Usually the
hypertension and necrosis of the central
fully mature metacestode (i.e. hydatid cyst)
portion of the cyst with abscess formation.
develops within several months or years.
Growth of the germinal membrane into
The hydatid disease is prevalence where
blood vessels produces metastasis to almost
livestock is raised in association with dogs.
any organ, but they are more commonly
Those endemic areas include Australia,
found in the lungs and brain (Gutierrez,
Latin America, Europe, Africa and the
1990).
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d:\skydrive\Jor\vol37_6 The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 664-684

Localization and Sorting of Mast Cells in Human Ovary;
A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

Sahar M Gamal, Nadia M Al- Rouby, and Mohammad A Ali
Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

Abstract:

Background
: In human, mast cells (MCs) are classified according to their proteases' content into
tryptase-containing mast cells (MCT) and tryptase and chymase-containing mast cells (MCTC). In
addition to phenotypic differences in MC subtypes, there is also functional distributional
heterogeneity. The present study was carried out to determine the physiological distribution of mast
cells in the different components of human ovary of different age groups. Mast cell sorting
according to their proteases content was also attempted with special emphasis on the possible
mechanism of their effects on ovarian functions. Material and methods: Archival blocks of human
ovarian tissue from females with age ranging from 16 to 75 years were used. The specimens were
divided into reproductive- and postmenopausal-age groups. Histological study using haematoxylin
and eosin as well as Masson trichrome staining was performed. Immunostaining using monoclonal
antibodies against tryptase and chymase was also carried out. Morphometric measurements in the
form of mast cell count per high power field as well as optical density of positively immuno-stained
mast cells in addition to measurement of area and area per cent were done. Obtained data were
statistically analyzed for significance using student's T- test. Results: MCs were mainly found in the
deep cortical stroma and in the vicinity of blood vessels. Occasionally, few cells were found in the
corpora lutea. There were no immunostained MCs in the walls of the different ovarian follicles,
corpora albicans or in the periphery of the ovarian cortical stroma. Statistical analysis revealed that
the number of MCT was significantly higher than MCTC in the reproductive-age group in comparison
to the postmenopausal-age group. The postmenopausal-age group demonstrated the presence of
statistically significant more degranulated MCTC and high collagen content in comparison to the
reproductive-age group. Conclusion: MC subtypes follow specific distribution pattern within the
ovarian tissue in the different age groups which has an impact on different ovarian functions in
many physiological and pathological situations.

Key Words: Mast cells, age, tryptase, chymase, immunohistochemistry and ovary.

Introduction:
through the blood circulation (Benoist and

Mathis, 2002). Unlike basophils or
Mast cells (MCs) are commonly found in
eosinophils, MCs do not leave the bone
the connective tissue or in the mucosa of
marrow as mature cells but as committed
many organs including skin, airways,
progenitors that lack secretory granules
digestive tract, testis, epididymis and
and, ultimately, functions characteristic of
female reproductive system (Metcalfe et
MC (Rodewald et al., 1996). Upon
al., 1997; Yong, 1997; Weidinger et al.,
reaching peripheral tissues, committed
2003 and Karaca et al., 2007). In species
progenitors
differentiate
under
the
with a well developed ovarian cortical
influence of micro-environmental factors
stroma and a long oestrous cycle, mast
to morphologically and functionally mature
cells were found to reside in the cortex and
MCs. Maturation of MCs is accompanied
medulla of the ovary (Reibiger and
by a change in their chemokine receptor
Spanel- Borowski, 2000).
profile (Forsythe & Befus, 2003).
MCs develop from bone marrow derived
MCs are one of the major effector cells in
progenitor cells that enter the tissue
the pathogenesis of the immediate-type
664


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Introduction: The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 685-699

Do Microwaves of Mobile Phone Affect the Testicular Tissue Structure?
(A histopathological and ultrastructural study)

Samir A. Nassar
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University

Abstract:

Background: Some studies have reported that microwave radiation have adverse effects on
reproduction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of
mobile phone microwaves on the histological structure and ultrastructure of mice testis.

Material
: five adult male mice were subjected to the mobile phone microwaves (900- 1800
MHz) for 30 days, one hour / day. Their exposure resulted in many histopathological and
ultrastructural changes.

Results:
The light microscopic examination of testis of irradiated animals revealed:
disorganization of the germinal epithelia, the seminiferous tubules taking elliptical aspects
with intratubular vacuolization, abnormal morphology of early and late spermatids, rupture of
the boundary membrane of the seminiferous tubules, pyknotic germ cells, damaged and ill-
defined interstitial cells. The semithin sections demonstrated an increased incidence of Sertoli
cells but they are detached from the basal membrane, the pachytene spermatocytes appeared
with abnormal faint heterochromatin and abnormal shapes of rounded and elongated
spermatids and spermatozoa.
The ultrastructural examination illustrated Sertoli cells with lobulated nuclei, ill-defined
nucleoli and ruptured cell boundary. Pachytene spermatocytes appeared with low integrity
and faint and dispersed chromatin material. Some of them were necrotic and others were
apoptotic. Early (rounded) and late (elongated) spermatids appeared with vacuolated
cytoplasm and deformed morphology. The interstitial cells of Leydig appeared smaller in size
with more electron dense components, vacuolated cytoplasm, ruptured mitochondria and
fragmented nuclei. Their neighbouring blood capillaries appeared congested with damaged
lateral pericytes .

Conclusion:
The results of this study showed that 1h / day (30 consecutive days) exposure of
900-1800 MHz microwaves affected the histological structure of mice testis particularly the
Leydig cells and recorded an apoptosis-inducing effect on the spermatogenic cells. Further
investigations are required to confirm these findings and to clarify the mechanism of action of
the applied microwave exposure on male reproductive organs, as well as to establish the
biological significance of these observations.
685

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QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 700-708

Allelic Polymorphism in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in
Coronary Artery Diseases

Omnia H.Seoudi*, Olfat G.Shaker**, Effat M.Abo El-kheir*, Hala M.El-mogy*,
Nareman M.Younees*.
Med. Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar
University*.Med. Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University**.


Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) has an important role in the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscles, inhibits
adhesion of platelets and leucocytes to the endothelium, reduces vascular smooth muscle cells
migration and proliferation and limits the oxidation of atherogenic LDL.
Nitric oxide is constitutively produced in the endothelium of blood vessels from L- arginine by
the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).
Polymorphism in the (eNOS) gene is an important risk factor in the pathophysiology of coronary
artery disease( CAD) .
In this study the polymorphism in (eNOS) gene was investigated in 30 patients with CAD and 20
control subjects using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Patients were classified into 10
patients with unstable angina and 20 patients with myocardial infarction
Results : The distribution of (eNOS) genotypes in patients affected by unstable angina was
50% for GG genotype , 40% for GT genotype and 10% for TT genotype and in patients
affected by myocardial infarction was (45%) for GG genotype, (35%) for GT genotype and
(20%) for TT genotype.
In control subjects it was (50%) for GG genotype, (45%) for GT genotype and (5%) for TT
genotype.
Conclusion: there is a great controversy about the role of (eNOS) gene polymorphism in the
pathophysiology of CAD.

Introduction
2003)


Coronary artery disease is a multifactorial
Nitric oxide binds to the heme moiety at the
disorder with genotype and environmental
active site of soluble guanylate cyclase
interactions having an important role in its
initiating a confirmational change which
development. (Francisco et al, 2006)
increases the production of cyclic

guanosine mono phosphate (cGMP) &
Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as a
facilitates protien phosphorylation by the
hormone with a broad range of effects. One
cGMP-dependant protien kinase which lead
of the major effects of NO is to induce the
to muscle relaxation. (Lucas et al, 2000)
relaxation of smooth muscles of blood

vessels, an important factor in the
There are three isoforms of the nitric oxide
regulation of blood pressure, and was
synthase enzyme: the neuronal isoform
previously recognized as the Endothelium-
(nNOS or NOS I), the inducible isoform
Derived Relaxing Factor. (Albrecht et al,
(iNOS or NOS II) and the endothelial
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QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 709-725

Studies on the effect of antioxidant Selenium-ACE after treatment with
Praziquantel and Mirazid in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

Muhammad Hamdy Emam*; Mona Abd El-Rahman **; Irene Sameh Gamil** and Marwa
Ahmed Muselhy**
* Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University ** Zoology Department,
Faculty of Science, Helwan University

Abstract:
Background: This study deals with the evaluation of parasitological, histopathological and
biochemical effect of Praziquantel (PZQ) and Mirazid (MZ) with or without Selenium-ACE
(Se-ACE) on male albino mice infected with S.mansoni and trying to evaluate the antioxidant
effect of Se-ACE and its role in reducing the severity of the infection.
Results: The obtained results indicated that treatment with PZQ produced more reduction in
worm burden and ova count/gm liver than MZ compared to the infected control group. PZQ
showed the highest reduction in liver granuloma number and diameter when compared to MZ
group while both drugs showed a significant effect in restoration of the liver transaminases
and protein fractions towards their normal levels indicating the safety of both drugs as anti S.
mansoni chemotherapeutics, Se-ACE showed a high efficacy as a co-treatment, potentiating
the effect of PZQ and MZ in reducing the worm burden, ova count/gm liver, number and
diameter of liver granuloma and restoration of liver transaminases and protein fractions to their
normal levels during treatment of S. mansoni infection.

Conclusion: the rank order of potency in protection against liver cell damage was PZQ 500
mg/kg > MZ 600 mg/kg where Se-ACE showed a couraging criterion as a co- treatment
potentiating the effect of the antischistosomal medications through its anti- oxidant activity.

Keywords: Praziquantel , Mirazid , Selenium ACE , S. mansoni and co-treatment.

Introduction:
development of PZQ is considered a

hallmark on the path to eradicate the
Schistosomiasis
is
a
chronic
and
Schistosomal infection (Pearson and
debilitating parasitic disease which affects
Guerrant, 1983). The use of PZQ has
approximately 200 million people in the
been correlated with some side effects such
developing
world
and
imposes
a
as hyperglycemia, thus, the search for a
substantial public health and economic
new effective and safe Schistosomicidal
impact, despite the continuous control
agent is highly encouraged ( El-Hawey et
efforts (Wang et al., 2009). The
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QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 726-732

A Study to Assess The Efficacy of Balloon Angioplasty of The
femoropopliteal Arteries in The Relief of Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

Ehab M. Abdo*, Hatem A. Mgahid,Abdel Aziz Abo Elella,
Vascular Surgery Unit, Al-Zhraa University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar
University, Cairo.

Abstract:


Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
(PTA) of femoropopliteal arteries in patients with critical lower limb ischemia;

Materials and methods:
From June 2006 till May 2008, 40 patients underwent 40 PTA procedures,
18 were of the superficial femoral artery (SFA), 7 of the popliteal artery, 9 of both arteries and 6 of
the common femoral artery (CFA). Twenty-nine procedures were performed for treatment of
stenoses and 11 for occlusion. The patients were monitored clinically with non-invasive
hemodynamic studies.

Results:
The technical success rate was 97.5%. Overall primary patency rates at 24 months were
67.5%. Primary patency rates in limbs with occlusion were 45.5% compared with 75.9 in limbs with
stenoses. Two major amputations were performed. The overall survival rate was 95%.

Conclusion:
The 2 years results of femoropopliteal PTA performed for treatment of CLI seemed to
be near the results of infrainguinal bypass grafting reported in literature. Because PTA does not
preclude the performance of future surgery and associated with low morbidity and mortality rates, it
should be a first choice treatment for patients with CLI for selected lesions.


Introduction:


procedures in Al-Zhraa University Hospital
Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC)
were evaluated in this study. All patients
for the management of peripheral arterial
included in this study were subjected to full
disease (PAD) defined CLI for all patients with
medical history, physical examination, basic
chronic ischemic rest pain, ulcers or gangrene
haematologic and biochemical tests. Patients
attributable to objectively proven arterial
who presented with chronic rest pain, ulcers or
occlusive disease (TASC II, 2007a). CLI is a
gangrene were subjected to pressure
common problem. Its incidence in UK is
measurements to prove that they are attributable
estimated to be between 50-100 cases per
to arterial occlusive disease ( ankle and toe
100000 populations per year. Sixteen percent
pressure measurements and transcutaneous
undergo primary major amputation. CLI was
oxygen measurements (TCPO2 )
previously considered as a primary indication
Arterial occlusive disease is suggested if either
for
bypass
surgery
and
percutaneous
ankle pressure <50-70 mmHg or
transluminal balloon angioplasty was only
reduced toe pressure <30-50 mmHg or
considered if the patient was at high risk for
reduced TCPO2 <30-50 mmHg.
surgery or if autogenous bypass material was
The mean ankle/brachial pressure index (ABPI)
not available (Nasr et al.,2002)
was 0.36 before PTA. A complete arteriogram
Aim of the Work :
from the level of the renal arteries to the level
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy
of the pedal arch was performed to correctly
of percutanous transluminal balloon angioplasty
plan treatment. Patients underwent crural artery
of the femoropopliteal arterial lesions in
PTA simultaneously with femoropopliteal PTA
patients who present with CLI.
are excluded. PTA was performed in the

angiography suite (using Philips multidiagnost
Materials and methods :
3 DSI with the technology of road mapping)
From June 2006 till May 2008, 40 patients with
under local anaesthesia . Low profile balloon
CLI who underwent 40 femoropopliteal PTA
catheters (A-Trac, Fox PTA, BLUE MAX,
726

Full Paper (vol.37 paper# 10)


QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 733-741

EFFECT OF CYNARA SCOLYMUS L. (ARTICHOKE) EXTRACT ON
LIPID PROFILE OF HYPERLIPIDEMIC MALE RATS

1*

Ghada, Z A Soliman, PhD; 2*Tamer M M Saad, PhD
1National Nutrition Institute. Cairo; 2Medical Research Department, Nuclear
Materials Authority, Cairo.

Abstract:

Introduction: Cynara scolymus L. (Artichoke) grows in Egypt and other countries. It is used as
foods and has medicinal properties. Artichoke extracts have been shown to produce various
pharmacological effects, such as the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and low density
lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation.

Purpose:
To study the effect of Cynara scolymus L. and its extract on lipid profile of
hyperlipidemic male rats.

Study Design:
Eighty male albino rats, Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing (204.010) were
housed individually in wire-mesh cages. Induction of hyperlipidemia was carried out on all rats
except negative control group by addition of cholesterol to the basal diet (2%) +0.25 bile salts
(taurocholic) for 4 weeks. After that the rats were divided into 8 groups (10 rats each), the first
(1st) and 2nd groups was negative (normal) and positive control groups (hyperlipidemic), groups
from G 3: G8, they were fed on basal diet supplemented with 2 level of extract (4 & 8 %) of
either heads, heads, or leaves extract. At the end of the experimental period (6 weeks treatment)
rats were fasted over night before sacrificing, blood was collected, centrifuged; serum or plasma
was stored at - 20 0C until analysis. Lipid profile and triacylglycerol were measured.

Results and Discussion:
Artichoke extracts (plant, head, and leaves) significantly reduced
cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triacylglycerol. No change was observed with high density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Heads extract being more powerful. This effect may be due to
its content of mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids, flavonoids and other contents or through
inhibition of LDL oxidation.

Conclusion:
artichoke extract seems to be positively modulate hypercholesterolemia and can
provide a protection from cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords:
Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke), Atherosclerosis; Antioxidant, Lipid profile.

Introduction:

The use of plants for treating
ultimately bursts, causing myocardial
various ailments dates back several
infarction. Botanical dietary supplements
centuries. Usually, plants (herbal) medicine
(herbs) can ameliorate this process and
has relied on tradition that may or may not
prevent cardiovascular disease at many
be supported by empirical data. The belief
steps in the process. Many herbs have
that natural medicines are much safer than
antioxidant activity and can reduce low
synthetic drugs has gained popularity in
density
lipoprotein
oxidation.
Some
recent years and led to tremendous growth
phytosterols found in botanicals can inhibit
of phytopharmaceutical usage (Bhattaram
cholesterol absorption (Heber 2001).
et al., 2002).
Hypercholesterolaemia
is
directly
Atherosclerosis is a complex
associated with an increased risk of
multicellular process, resulting in an
coronary heart disease (CHD) (Holme
unstable
atherosclerotic
plaque
that
1990). Standard drug therapy includes bile
733


Full Paper (vol.37 paper# 11)


QUANTITATIVE AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TESTICULAR TISSUE USED IN CASES OF ICSI The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 742-758

Anatomical and Histochemical
Studies of the thyroid gland of two Egyptian reptiles

Boshra A. El-Salkh; Zaki T. Zaki; Ibrahem G. Ibrahem and Samia Saad
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University for Girls and boys, Nasr
City, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract:

Two species of lizards are used in the present work Eumeces schneiderii as a
hibernating reptile and Laudakia stellio brachydactyla as a non-hibernating one.

Macroscopically, the thyroid of Eumeces schneiderii is formed of separate paired
structures lying on both sides of the bifurcation of left and right carotid arteries. The
thyroid of Laudakia, is formed of two well defined lobes each lying on either side of the
trachea with a narrow connecting isthmus.

Microscopically, the thyroid gland in both animals is composed of a big number of
follicles which are held together by a loose connective tissue. The Interfollicular spaces
are filled with blood sinusoids. Each follicle is composed of one layer of epithelial cells,
which vary in their heights from winter to summer.

In Laudakia, the gland never become completely inactive during winter. In Eumeces
schneiderii , it is completely inactive during hibernation.

Intracellular colloid droplets are rarely found in the thyroid of Laudakia, while they are
very frequent In Eumeces schneiderii. This colloid shows regular seasonal changes in
both animals depending on the degree of activity of acini.

Introduction:


Although reptiles Eumeces schneiderii and
Viguier(1909a)
described
the
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla have been
presence of lymphoid tissue in variable
recorded in Egypt from long time
places of the thyroid gland of the gecko
(Anderson, 1898),
there are little
Tarentola mauretaniea. He stated that this
informations about the histological and
tissue is similar to the thymus of young
histochemical structures of the endocrine
lizard. Group of lymphocytes was also
glands of these species.
de
sc r i b e
d
b
y
E
ggert (1934) in the tropical
Several early anatomists reported
gecko, Gymnodactylus marmoratus on the
about the presence of the thyroid tissue in
sides of the thyroid gland.
few reptiles. Detailed description of the
Eggert (1935) described the presence
gross morphology of the thyroid is available
of aggregations of lymphocytes in the
for only a small number of reptiles;
thyroid
glands
of
Lacerta
agilis;
Naccarati (1922) on Emys evropaea ,
Lacertavivipara and Lacertamuralis in the
Pischinger (1937) on Chalcides, and
interfollicular spaces next to the rest cells.
Adams (1939) on Sphenodon and Lacerta
Bragdon (1952) in grater snake
made a comparative presentation of the
Thamnophis sirtalis indicated that, the
anatomical features of the endocrine gland
gland is avoid or globular in shape located
in the neck region of reptiles and other
at the level of the twenty first to twenty
vertebrates.
fourth ventral scutum.The resultes of the
742


Full Paper (vol.37 paper# 12)


PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR AND THE EXTENT OF SKIN THICKENING AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF PULMONARY AFFECTION IN SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 759-771

Effects of the methanolic extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Olea europaea
and Morus alba leaves in Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats.


A. I. Othman*, M. A. Amer*, M. Abdel-Mogib **, R. F. Samaha*
* Zoology Department, ** Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura
University, Mansoura, Egypt

Abstract

Background
:The present study aims to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidimic and
antioxidant effect of the methanolic crude extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba and
Olea europaea
leaves, individually or in combination against diabetes induced rats by
Streptozotocin (STZ).

Results:Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia except in high density lipoproteins (HDL) were
observed in serum after 5 weeks of STZ administration. This was associated with a depression
in hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration as well as hepatic catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-
transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activates. In addition hepatic thiobarbituric
acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly elevated,
indicating increased lipid and protein oxidation and oxidative stress. Depression in blood
hemoglobin (Hb) content, serum insulin levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and nitric
oxide (NO) levels as well as body weight gain were also observed in diabetic rats.
Administration of 100mg/kg alcoholic extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba and Olea
europaea
leaves 3 days before and after STZ injection daily for 5 weeks significantly
ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by lowering TBARS & PC as well as increasing
hepatic GSH concentration and CAT, GST and SOD activates as compared with STZ treated
rats. These effects were paralleled with marked protection against STZ induced hyperglycemia
and disturbance of lipid profile. They also caused a great improvement in insulin levels, TAOC,
NO, Hb content and body weight gain. Conclussion:Thus, these results showed that the
administration of the crude extracts of either Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba or Olea
europaea
leaves individually or in combination might improve the clinical manifestation of
diabetes and decrease the oxidative stress, this study supports the beneficial effects of these
extracts especially Zizyphus spina christi, which showed marked amelioration and this may be
attributed to the presence of saponin glycosides which have an inhibitory effect of serum
glucose level in addition to enhance the cellular antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to
the protection against oxidative damage in STZ induced diabetes.

Key words: diabetes; Zizyphus spina-christi; Olea europaea; Morus alba, antioxidants; lipids;
oxidative stress markers; nitric oxide.

Introduction:

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic
Type2 diabetes mellitus or non-insulin-
metabolic disease characterized by elevated
dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
blood glucose levels and disturbances in
results from hyperglycemia caused by
carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.
overproduction of glucose at the hepatic
These metabolic abnormalities result, in
level or because of abnormal cell function
part, from a deficiency of the blood sugar
or insulin resistance at target cells (Fajans
lowering hormone insulin; this deficiency
et al., 1997).
in insulin results in type1 diabetes (IDDM).
759

Full Paper (vol.37 paper# 13)


PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR AND THE EXTENT OF SKIN THICKENING AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF PULMONARY AFFECTION IN SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) Vol., 37: 772-779

Quality of life in psoriasis patients


*Fatma M Abd Al Salam.,** Seham F Mohamed, **Taghreed M El-Shafie.
** Hesham M Abuhegazy
* Department of Dermatology and Venereology.,
** Department of psychiatry Al Azhar University

Abstract

Skin and psyche share embryonic origins, various psychological factors, including
emotional trauma and stressful life events, may affect both onset and progression of some skin
conditions, Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with substantial impact on patient's social and
relational ways of living and subsequently on their quality of life. This chronic condition has a
significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. Psoriasis has been linked to patients
depression and suicidal tendencies Patients and Methods The study group consisted of 50
consenting consecutive cases of psoriasis vulgaris, of both sexes, aged 18-62 years (41.44
0.101), and with duration of the disease 6-10 years, attending the dermatology outpatient clinic
of Al Zahraa university hospital. The extent of clinical severity of the disease was assessed by
the psoriatic area and severity index (PASI Score), Assessment of quality of life of patients by
Lehman Quality of Life Interview (LQLI) .According toPASI score they were devided into
3groups :mild cases were treated by topical steroid and salyslic acid while moderate cases were
treated by NB-UVB and severe cases were treated by systemic methotrexate. Results showed
that 57.4% of patients were unsatisfied with their family relations and 43.5% are satisfied.
However, about their social relations they were 55.3% satisfied while 44.6% were unsatisfied.
In the other hand, they were 52.3% satisfied with their finance while the other 48.2% were
unsatisfied with it. As regard, work or school they were 66.4% satisfied and 33.5% unsatisfied.
While they were 85.1% satisfied with low, safety, and 14.8% unsatisfied. The same for health
94.4% satisfied and 6.5% unsatisfied .The third group treated by systemic methotrexate show
marked increase in LQLI. Conclusions: Psoriasis is a disease with profound impact on the
psychological and social aspect of the patient, particularly because of its visibility. Systemic
therapy of psoriasis could improve their quality of life. Thus assessment by a health professional
of the extent of apparent disease in terms of the clinical severity alone may not suffice, and a
more holistic approach to the quality of life is mandatory.

Key Words: Psoriasis, Quality of life

Introduction:


Skin plays a vital role in the maintenance of
negative impact on patients' quality of life.
physical and mental health. Skin retains the
Psoriasis has been linked to the depression
ability to respond to both endogenous and
and suicidal tendencies. (Prins et al., 2005)
exogenous stimuli, sensing and integrating

environmental cues while transmitting
Psoriasis has a significant negative
intrinsic conditions to the outside world. As
impact on patients' health related quality of
such, it has long been a target for the
life (HRQoL). In a survey by the National
application of both medical and non medical
Psoriasis Foundation almost 75% of
therapies of healthy and diseased states
patients believed that psoriasis had
(Wahl et al., 2002). Psoriasis is a chronic
moderate to large negative impact on their
skin disease with substantial impact on
quality of life (QoL), with alterations in
patients social and relational ways of living
their daily activities(Fortune et al., 2005)
and subsequently on their quality of life.
Furthermore, physical and emotional effects
This chronic condition has a significant
of psoriasis were found to have a significant
772

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