Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 463­ 474

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on
Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat

Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish**,
Gihan. H. Aweida*** and Enas A. Auda****
Anatomy*, Forensic medicine & toxicology**, biochemistry***
& pharmacology department****
Al-Azhar University, Faculty of medicine for girls


: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone) was a benzofuran derivative, used in
management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland
structure and function was investigated in this study.
Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three
groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water
orally (1ml). The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group,
received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a
toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three
months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3),
thyroxine (T4), thyrotrophin (TSH), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumour marker P53 and tissue residue
for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined.
Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron
microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001) were observed
in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very
highly significant increase (P<0.001) of serum (T4 & T3) with Concomitant suppression of
(TSH) (P<0.001). Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase
(P<0.001). Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed
significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic
dose treated group.
Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light
microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular
changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular
nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of
epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage
and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the
form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies,
mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were
dose related.
Key Words: Amiodarone ­ Thyroid - Gland - Rat


Amiodarone was a potent anti
Cappiello, et al. (1995) & Anu Bhalla
arrhythmic agent, it was widely used in
(2007) reported that amiodarone induced
tachyarrhythmias and to a lesser extent,
thyrotoxicosis. It occurred with chronic
ischaemic heart disease. Amiodarone was a
treatment. Its pathogenesis was related to
benzofuraric derivative whose structural
iodine overload or direct toxic effect of
formula closely resembled that of T4. It
amiodarone with consequent release of
was associated with variations in thyroid
iodothyronine into the circulation.
gland structure and function.
Chiovate, et al. (1994) said that

(Desethyl amiodarone) DEA the main
patient developed either hypothyroidism or
amiodarone metabolite was even more
thyroto-xicosis. (Martino, et al., 2001).
cytotoxic for thyroid cells than amiodarone


Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 1)

BIOCHEMICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDIES ON DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 475­ 485

Effect Of Dietary Supplementation With Tigernut Tubers On
Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

H. A. Hassan
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.


This work has been carried out to detect the effect of tigernut tubers as an antidiabetic
plant on some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes
mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg STZ /kg body weight. The
present results indicated an increase in both serum glucose level and liver glucose-6-
phosphatase (G6P) activity in STZ-diabetic rats. In addition, a significant decrease in serum
insulin level and liver glycogen content was recorded in the same rats. Moreover, serum total
lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels revealed a significant increase,
while a decrease in the level of HDL-cholesterol was observed in STZ-diabetic rats. The activity
of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) showed marked increase in STZ-diabetic rats. On the other hand, tigernut-
supplemented diet (25% w/w) for two or four weeks recorded a significant improvement in all
the above biochemical parameters affected by STZ injection especially after four weeks of
treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that tigernut tubers had appreciable hypoglycemic and
hypolipidemic effects on STZ-diabetic rats.

Key Words: Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) ­ STZ-diabetic rats ­ lipid profiles


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most
nutsedge) (Cyperus esculentus) is relatively
common non-communicable world wide
popular in some societies as an antidiabetic
diseases. It is the major metabolic disorder
agent (Gupta et al., 1971., Ghazanfar,
secretion and/or insensitive target tissues to
Tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus)
metabolic actions of insulin (Motala et al.,
are edible, with a slightly sweet and nutty
2000., Pignone, 2007). Despite the
flavor. The tubers are used as a foodstuff,
progressive efforts to produce synthetic
particularly in Africa, where it's an
drugs for treating diabetic patients, there is
important food crop with certain tribes.
a widespread propensity of patients to
Tigernut have excellent nutritional qualities
herbal medicine which can face the high
with a fat composition similar to olives
cost and the poor availability for many rural
(Coskunerm et al., 2002). It is also gluten
populations, particularly in developing
and cholesterol free (Wills et al., 1980).
country (Marles and Fransworth, 1995.,
Moreover, it is the richest food source
Somani et al., 2007). Recently, traditional
of flavonoids (El-Habashy, 1988) and also
plant medicines or herbal formulations to
rich in water, fibers, alkaloids, digestible
treat diabetes could form the basis for new
carbohydrates, saponins and fatty oils
treatments for the disease (Abdel-Monem,
(glycerides), in addition to some elements,
2005; Brownlee, 2006., Rao, 2007). Also it
like phosphors, potassium, calcium, iron,
might offer a natural key to unlock diabetic
zinc, magnesium and manganese (Addy and
complications (Babu et al., 2006). In
Eteshola, 1984; Jeong et al., 2000). The
addition, the Egyptian herbal medicine was
fatty oil content in tigernut was 25-27%,
widely respected throughout the ancient
these fatty acids classified into dominant
Mediterranean world. Among these herbal
saturated fatty acids such as miristic acid as
remedies consumption of tigernut (yellow
well as dominant unsaturated fatty acids

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 2)

Table 1 : Identification of sex linked recessive lethals occurring spontaneously and after different treatments with paracetamol in D The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 486­ 194

Genotoxicity of paracetamol on the germ cells of
Drosophilla melanogaster

Saleha Y. M. alakilli
Department of Biology, Faculty of science, King Abdelaziz University,
Saudi Arabia


Paracetamol is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug. The aim of the present study is
to determine the potential genetic effects of Paracetamol in Drosophilla melanogaster using two
methods: Sex Linked Recessive Lethals (SLRL) test and effect of Paracetamol on enzyme
activity using spectrophotometric analysis. Three concentrations of drug were used (5, 10, and
20 mM). The results reveal significant differences in S.L.R.L, except spermatozoa stages
showed insignificant increases when the data of the four broods were considered all together in
three treatments. Meanwhile, Paracetamol showed a genotoxic effects in the three categories of
the two generations of S.L.R.L, F1 heterozygous females, F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type
males on the genetic back ground of Cholinesterase in all treatments.


analgesic compound can produce harmful
melanogaster by Paracetamol. Furthermore,
unwanted effects. It is now well established
Skorpen et al. (1998) demonstrated that
long term ingestion of analgesic compounds
may result in analgesic nephropathy with
ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, delays repair of
impaired renal function. Paracetamol has
the Uracil - DNA glycosylase and recovery
been used extensively as an analgesic and
of RNA synthesis in human keratinocyte
antipyretic drug. Several reports have
cells. In some animals, small doses of
indicated genotoxic effects of Paracetamol.
paracetamol are toxic [Allen, 2003].
It was reported that Paracetamol also causes
Walubo et al. (2004) said that co-
chromosomal aberrations
hamster fibroblast cells in vitro [Ishidate
inhibitors of cytochrome P450 prevented
and Yqshikawa, 1980]. Paracetamol has
the development of Paracetamol- induced
been shown to induce liver-cell tumours in
hepatotoxicity in rats. Also, Ucheya and
mice after long- term feeding (Flaks and
Igweh (2006) suggested that histological
Flaks, 1983), and to induce DNA damage in
changes in kidney structure follwing a long-
mouse-liver cells in culture (Dybing et al.,
1984). Dunn et al ., 1987 were found that
(Acetaminophen) in pregnant Sprague
Paracetamol induced micronuclei in rat-
Dawleg rats, induces toxicity revealed by
kidney fibroblasts. In vivo and in vitro
induced hyperacidity in combination with
acute or chronic inflammation (Rainsford
Paracetamol inhibits both replicative DNA
and White house, 2006). However, Because
synthesis and DNA repair synthesis
of the wide availability of paracetamol
animals. It is also causes DNA damages
there is a large potential for overdose and
toxicity [Pardale et al., 2006 and Pardale,
chromosomal aberrations in mammalian
2007]. The present study was carried out to
cell lines and isolated human Lymphocytes
investigate the nature of the response of
[Hongslo et al., 1990, Hongslo and Holme,
Drosophilla melanogaster male germ cells
1994, Rannug et al., 1995]. Tapadia and
to three concentrations of Paracetamol
Lkhotia (1997) were investigated the
(acetami-nophen) using the well known
specific induction of the hsr omega heat
Muller-5 technique for the detection of sex

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 3)

HISTOLOGICAL The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 492­ 110

Histological, Scanning And Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies On
The Possible Protective Role Of Ginger Extract Against Acrylamide
Induced Intestinal Damage In Mice

Hala Galal El-Tantawi
Department Of Zoology ­Faculty Of Science - Ain Shams University


Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of ginger Zingeber
extract (ZOE) against the acrylamide (AC) which is an industrial chemical used in
water treatment and it is synthesized during cooking of starch food at high temperature.
Method: Thirty adult male albino mice, each weighs 20-25 g were divided into three
groups (10 mice/group): (I)control group. (II)acrylamide treated group. (III) acrylamide &
ginger group. Acrylamide was given to experimental animals in the drinking water at a non-
lethal dose of 200 p.p.m for 10 weeks (3 days/week). Ginger extract was orally administrated at
50 mg/L (~5 ml/day) for 10 weeks (3 days/week). The ileum samples were collected for light
microscope study and for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination.
Results: This study revealed that acrylamide induces pathological changes of the ileum of
the treated mice specially the absorptive epithelial cells. The scanning electron microscopic
study revealed damage of the ileal villi, some red blood corpuscles appeared at the site of
damage. The transmission electron microscopic examination clearly demonstrated degeneration
of most cell organelles as mitochondria, deterioration and degranulation of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation of Golgi apparatus.
Conclusion: The administration of ginger extract decreased the histological alterations
and ensuring the anti-inflammatory, and antitoxic effects of ZOE at its chosen dosage level.
Key words: Acrylamide ­ ginger- ileum.


Acrylamide is an industrial chemical
sugars (e.g glucose) (Mottram et al., 2002).
used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide and
Glycidamide, a metabolite of acryla-
has multiple applications as additive for
mide, binds to DNA and can cause genetic
sewage and water treatment (Smith and
damage. Prolonged exposure to acrylamide
Oehme, 1991). Individuals can be exposed
has induced tumours in rats, but cancer in
to acrylamide either in their workplace or in
man has not been convincingly shown. The
the environment (Marsh et al., 1999).
International Agency for Research on
Recent findings of the presence of
Cancer (IARC) has classified acrylamide as
acrylamide in starch foods cooked at high
"probably carcinogenic to humans" (IARC,
temperature have refocused worldwide
1994). Barber et al. (2001) reported that the
attention on its carcinogenicity (Tareke et
rate of acrylamide conversion to its epoxide
al., 2002). In addition, acrylamide is used
metabolite glycidamide is higher during
extensively in molecular laboratories for gel
subchronic dosing conditions.
chromatography (LoPachin, 2004).
On the other hand the ginger has been
According to WHO (2002), the
widely studied for its pharmacological acti-
average intake of 70µg of acrylamide per
vities and has been reported to exhibit anti-
day for an adult would be associated with a
inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicro-bial,
lifetime cancer risk . Studies in animal
hypoglycemic, antimigraine, antiox-idant,
models and humans are necessary to better
hepatoprotective, diuretic, hypocho-lestero-
understand the toxicity of acrylamide .It
lemia (Langner et al.,1998; Mascolo et
was shown that acrylamide might be
al.,1989) and antihypertensive activities
formed through the Maillard reaction from
(Ghayur and Gilani., 2005). Phytochemical
amino acids (e.g asparagines) and reducing
studies showed the presence of pungent

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 4)

Efficacy of oat bran and atorvastatin treatment on hypercholesterolemia of rat liver The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 511­ 521

Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L.) in comparison with atorvastatin in
treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver.

Maisaa M. AL-Rawi
Biology Department, Girls College, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.


Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L.) in the
treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin,
on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats.
Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats) were
used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with
cholesterol (0.5% w/w) for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on
oat supplemented diet (20% w/w) for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated
hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks.
Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a
significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in
cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug
improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections
of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning
degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found
around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment
was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug
treated rats.
Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have
potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the
prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.
Keywords: liver, histopathology, oat bran, atorvastatin, hypercholesterolemia


The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of
Oats, an important source of water-soluble
cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant, are
fibers, have long been recognized as a
used for food for people and animals,
potential cholesterol-lowering dietary com-
especially poultry and horses (Anderson et
ponent (Davidson et al.,1991). Indeed,
al., 1990). Oat is the only cereal containing
Ripsin et al. (1992) concluded from a meta-
a globulin or legume-like protein, aven-
analysis of 12 trials that soluble fiber from
alins, as the major (80%) storage protein.
oat products had a significant effect on total
Globulins are characterized by water
cholesterol concentrations. It was estimated
solubility; because of this property, oats
that a daily consumption of 3 g soluble
may be turned into milk but not into bread.
fiber lowered total cholesterol by 0.13
The more typical cereal proteins, such as
mmol/L in normocholesterolemic persons
gluten and prolamines. The minor protein
and by 0.41 mmol/L in hyperchol-
of oat is a prolamine: avenin. Oat protein is
esterolemic persons (Brown et al., 1999).
nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein
The beneficial effects of oat products
which has been shown by the World Health
on the lipoprotein profile are ascribed to
Organization to be the equal to meat, milk,
their soluble fiber compound, ß-glucan
and egg protein. The protein content of the
(Braaten et al., 1994). ß-glucan from oats is
hull-less oat kernel (groat) ranges from 12­
a nonstarch polysaccharide that is comp-
24%, the highest among cereals (Asp et
osed of ß-(1 4)­linked glucose units,
which are separated every 2­3 units by a

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 5)

ž’ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 255 ­ 536

Morphological, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in the Pregnant
Rat Placenta and the Liver of their Fetuses Treated with Folic
Acid and / or Gamma Radiation

Fatma, L. Ramadan and Seham M. Abu Nour
National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority
(AEA) Cairo, Egypt.


Backgrounds: The efficacy of antioxidant supplementation and oxidative stress of
gamma irradiation for and during pregnancy is poorly established. The present study aimed to
detect the toxic effects of high dose of folic acid and / or gamma radiation on the placenta of
pregnant rat and the liver of their fetuses.
Material and Methods: Pregnant albino rats were divided into four groups. The first
group served as a control, the second group received oral intake of folic acid (5 mg/kg) from the
5th to 20th day of gestation, the third group was irradiated with gamma radiation (3Gy, as
fractionated doses (1Gy/ 3 times) on each 5th, 10th and 15th days of gestation, the fourth group
was imanaged with combined treatment.
The pregnant rats were sacrified after 20 days of pregnancy and samples were taken from
the blood, placenta and the fetal liver for the morphological, biochemical and electron
microscopic studies.
Results: The present results showed a significant elevation in serum gamma
glutamyltransferase (GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in placental tissue of pregnant rats
associated with an increase of phosphorus content in liver of fetuses. Fetal malformations
including: protrusion, anotia, short neck dactylomegaly, subcutaneous haemorrhage, paralysis in
the fore limbs and congested blood vessels.
The ultrastructural changes revealed sever damage in the placenta following folic acid
administration and / or exposure to whole body gamma radiation.
Also the fetal liver showed an appearent signs of damage under the combined treatment.
The obtained changes were represented by: dilatation of the blood sinsoids, swollen
mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum and necrosis.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of folic acid and/or exposure to
gamma radiation during pregnancy induced morphological, biochemical and ultrastructural
changes in both placenta of the pregnant rats and liver of their fetuses.
Key words: Folic acid, radiation, Pregnancy, placenta, liver, fetus, -GT, LDH,
phosphorus, Teratology, electron microscop.


Folic acid (B vitamin) needed for cell
into glucose which is burned to produce
replication and growth. Folic acid helps
from building blocks DNA baby's genetic
B complex vitamins are essential in
information and building blocks of RNA
the breakdown of fats and proteins.
and needed for protein synthesis in all cells.
B complex vitamins also play an important
The growing tissues such as those of
role in maintaining muscle tone along the
the fetus and rapidly regenerating cells like
lining of the digestive tract and promoting
red blood cells have a high need for folic
the health of the nervous system, skin, hair,
acid (Health notes, 2005). The requirement
eyes, mouth and liver (Living Naturally,
for folic acid increases considerably during
2006). Hathcock (1997) stated that
pregnancy (Truswell, 1985). Vitamin B also
supplemental folic acid should not exceed
helps the body to convert carbohydrates
1.000 mcg for adult men and women and a

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 6)

All rats were examined by Uri- Quick TM (cline - 3, reagent strips for urine analysis) for glucose detection The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 537 ­ 545

Effect of Trifolium alexandrinum extracts on the kidneys of diabetic rats:
Biochemical and histological study.

Maisaa M. AL-Rawi
Biology Department, Girls College, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.


Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common and most devastating complications of
diabetes. During the course of diabetic retinopathy, the glomeruli are slowly destroyed, usually
with no detectable signs until the later stages of the disease, when the kidneys filtration process
can no longer function. Throughout this disease, blood flow through the kidneys increases
"hyperfiltration", and the kidneys become enlarged. Damage to the glomeruli becomes evident,
as well as a condition known "microalbuminuria", in which a blood protein, albumin, leaks into
the urine. This loss of proteins and other nutrients in the blood progresses, as does the damage
to the glomeruli. The kidneys progressively lose their ability to filter waste until the final stage,
kidney failure, occurs. On the other hand, some species of the plants were reported having
remarkable medical importance. Trifolium alexandrinum is a medicinal herb; it has been shown
to improve the flow of blood through arteries and veins in diabetic patients. Therefore, the
present study aims to determine the possible improvement effects of different extracts of
Trifolium alexandrinum (CF) on some biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidneys
of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Sixty adult male albino rats (210 ± 5 g) were injected
(IP) with streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg b.wt) for induction of diabetes. Animals were
classified into five groups. Daily intake of water, hexane and ethanolic extracts of T.
alexandrinum in drinking water for 4 weeks after diabetes induction were used. Urine glucose
was detected every week. Serum total protein, albumen, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels
were tested. Data were expressed statistical to elucidate the differences between treated and
control groups. The kidney paraffin sections of control and treated groups were stained with
haematoxylin and eosin for histological studies. A single dose of STZ induced diabetes
produced remarkable effects on both structure and function of the rat kidneys. The kidney
exhibited damage of some renal corpuscles revealed glomerular mesangial cells hypertrophy,
dilatation of renal tubules together with necrosis of their lining cells. Serum total protein,
albumen, urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly increased. Daily urine volume and
consequently renal excretion of albumen, urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly
increased. However, remarkable improvement of the renal structure and function of diabetic rats
was observed after treating with Trifolium alexandrinum extracts especially the group treated
with water extract.
Conclusion: Extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum improved histological and biochemical
alterations of the kidneys noticed in STZ-diabetic rats. These effects may be due to the presence
of a high content of flavonoids which acts synergistically as antioxidants.
Key words: Trifolium alexandrinum ­ kidney function ­ STZ-diabetic rats


Diabetic kidney disease "diabetic
function. Throughout this disease, blood
nephropathy", is one of the most common
flow through the kidneys increases
and most devastating complications of
"hyperfiltration", and the kidneys become
diabetes. During the course of diabetic
enlarged. Damage to the glomeruli becomes
retinopathy, the glomeruli are slowly
evident, as well as a condition known
destroyed, usually with no detectable signs
"microalbuminuria", in which a blood
until the later stages of the disease, when
protein, albumin, leaks into the urine. This
the kidneys filtration process can no longer
loss of proteins and other nutrients in the

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 7)

The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 546 ­ 556

The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal
Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir*
Physiology and Biochemistry*Departments
Faculty of Medicine Al -Azhar University-Cairo


Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the
pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment
isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical
scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of
curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats.
Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.): (Gr.I)
control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II) received 200
mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. ) orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III) injected I.p
by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen.) for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV)
(Cur./Gen.) received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100
mg/kg/day) for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur
administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks). Body weight
was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the
concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine clearance. Also,
kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric
acid reacting substance (TBARS) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and
glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured in kidney tissue.
Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were
significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly
decreased (P < 0.0005), in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could
significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in
kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase,
GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005), However, Cur. could normalize all the above
parameters as compared to control.
Conclusion: Our data indicate that Cur. could suppress renal toxicity by blocking
oxidative injury in the kidney and restore the antioxidant enzymatic profile. The renoprotective
effect of Cur. is also evident by a remarkable improvement of renal function in Gen. injected
rats. So Cur. can be used as a potent protective agent against renal oxidative damage mediated
by Gen.


Curcumin (Cur.) is a major yellow
In its pure form,Cur. is a crystalline
pigment in turmeric which is widely used as
powder that is insoluble in water. It is also
a spice and coloring agent in several foods.
known as diferuloylmethane and turmeric
Curcuminoids are responsible for the
yellow. Its chemical name is (E, E) --1, 7-
yellow color of turmeric, as well as the
yellow color of curry (Tirkey et al., 2005).
heptadiene-3, 5 dione. The molecular
Curcuminoids are derived from
formula of Cur. is C21H20O6, its molecular
turmeric by extraction with ethanol. Cur. Is
weight is 368.39 daltons, and its structural
the most studied form of the curcuminoids.
formula is:


Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 8)

ž’M The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 557 ­ 565

Role of Secretory Excretory Products of Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs in
Modulating Hepatic Morbidity

Ibrahim Rabia; Zeinab Fahmy, Eman El-Ahwany*and Hoda Sabry
Parasitology, Immunology* Departments Theoder Bilharz Research Insitute,
Giza ,Egypt


In the present study the possible anti-morbidity effect of secretory excretory products
(SEP) of Schistoma mansoni eggs (given to mice before infection) was investigated. Multiple
small doses of SEP were injected intra-peritoneally into albino mice (100 g of purified SEP
followed 2 weeks later by two booster doses of 50 g each at weekly intervals). Data revealed
reduction in CD4+ cells and increase in CD8+ cells of hepatic granuloma in SEP-immunized
infected group, resulting in significant decrease in CD4+/CD8+ ratio, in comparison to infected
control group. The serum cytokine level of both TNF--alpha and IFN-gamma were also
significantly decreased. Histopathological examination of liver revealed remarkable increase in
degenerated ova within hepatic granuloma which decreased in diameter (12%). Significant
reduction in worm burden (46%) and tissue egg loads (42.8% and 50% for hepatic and intestinal
ova respectively) were observed. Mean while decreased percent of immature stages with
increase in percent of dead ova in Oogram pattern was recorded. This work may help in
decrease the severity of hepatic morbidity.


Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical
helminthic infection (Lightowlers and
helminthic disease characterized by parasite
Rickards, 1988). In infection with S.
egg-induced granulomatous inflammation
mansoni, hepatic granuloma formation is
and cumulative fibrosis. In a previous
mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes
study, Boros (1989) told that the small
sensitized to egg antigens (Singh et al.,
granuloma size could lessen the possibility
2004). The systematic identification of
of tissue damage. At the same time, regu-
immunogenic egg components is important
lation of the host reaction to Schistosome
to understand the specific basis of egg-
egg antigen (SEA) by induction of specific
induced immuno-pathology in schistoso-
T-cell unrespon-siveness could be potent
miasis. To gain further insight into the
prophylactic measure to prevent excessive
specific immune response against parasite
destruction of host tissues by the
eggs, Asahi et al. (2003), characterized
granulomatous inflammation characteristic
several egg antigens with a molecular
of acute schistosomiasis Stadecker (1992).
weight of 25 kDa (Sm-p25). They added
Recently, a variety of secretory-
that a recombinant Sm-p25 protein elicited
excretory products, from different stages of
significant proliferative and cytokine
S.mansoni, have been identified to induce a
responses in addition to induced antibody
level of host-protective immune responses
responses. higher level of antibodies were
with amelioration of morbidity (Maher et
detected in infected sera obtained after
al., 2003; El-Ahwany et al., 2006).
parasite oviposition. Doenhoff et al.(2003),
Parasitic helminthes secrete or excrete
reported that a 27kDa enzyme secreted by
a variety of molecules (SEP) into their
S. mansoni eggs is presumed to be
mammalian host' in some host- parasite
responsible for the Schistosome egg
systems, SEP may induce host-protective
fibrinolytic activity.
immune responses and their source of
Several promising trials in experim-
protective antigens has been utilized in
ental models of protective immunity in
successful vaccination model against
schistosomiasis have identified. (Pearce et

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 9)

Immunigusichenmical expression of P53 and cyclin DI proteins in follicular thyroid tumors: evaluation of their significance The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 566 ­ 577

Immunohistochemical Expression of P53 and Cyclin D1 Proteins in
Follicular Thyroid Tumors: Evaluation of Their Significance

Ahmed H. Abdel-Rahman El-Rashidy1- Samir Abdel Salam A. Ibraheim2_
Amer Yehia Mohamed2_ Mohammed Hassan Fahmy3 _ Shehata AM4
From Departments of Pathology1 and General Surgery2, 3, 4, Al-Azhar(Assiut), Cairo & Al-
Menya Universities


The sequential mutational events which may underlie the tumorigenesis of thyroid
neoplasia are gradually becoming apparent. To clarify the role of P53 and cyclin D1 in the
oncogenesis and tumor progression of thyroid neoplasms, we examined the immunoreactivity of
these proteins in one hundred and thirty (130) thyroid tumors originating from the follicular
epithelium using immunohistochemistry. The tumors were divided into two groups group I:
included thirty five (35) follicular adenomas and group II: included ninety five (95) follicular
carcinomas; 65 of which were well differentiated (WDC) while the remaining (30) were poorly
differentiated (PDC). P53 positivity was more frequent in group II (20/95; 21.1%) than in group
I (6/35; 17.1%) and in PDC (11/30; 26.6%) than WDC (9/65; 13.8%). On the other hand, cyclin
D1 positivity was frequent in WDC (21/65; 32.3%) and rarely seen in adenoma group (2/35;
5.7%). Co ­positivity for P53 and cyclin D1 proteins was more observed in PDC (5/30; 16.7%)
than in WDC (3/65; 4.6%).
The study suggested that cyclin DI may be involved in the thyroid oncogenesis and
concluded that both proteins may be incriminated in the progression of follicular thyroid
neoplasms. Moreover, we found that age at the time of diagnosis, the histologic differentiation,
necrosis in primary tumor, extrathyroidal invasion and the presence of distant metastases are
important prognostic and risk factors. In addition, our study revealed that the detection of P53,
but not cyclin D1, in primary follicular carcinomas is a significant independent prognostic
indicator which, together with the above mentioned important prognostic factors, may be of
value in the theraputic planning of these tumors.
Key words: Thyroid gland ­ Follicular tumors ­ Immunohistochemistry- P53 ­ Cyclin
D1- prognosis.


Despite numerous strategies to
suppressor genes (Dobashi et al.,1994;
develop new treatments, cancer is still one
Pilotti et al.,1994 & Motoi et la.,2000).
of the main causes of mortality in
P53 gene, a tumor suppressor gene,
developed countries. Indentification of
located on the shart arm of chromosome 17,
prognostic factors and development of
encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein of P53
scoring systems might permit a selective
KDa that functions as a transcription factor
approach to therapy, thereby avoiding
by binding DNA and negatively regulates
unnecessarily aggressive treatment for
cell division by blocking the cell cycle in
tumors that are likely to follow a low
GI-S transition (Josef,1999). P53 inactiv-
malignant potential course and in addition,
ation occurs by point mutation and allelic
avoiding inadequate therapy for those
loss or other mechanisms and has proved to
anticipated to display an aggressive
be an important step for carcinogenesis
behavior (Ceraline et al.,2003).
(Jensen and Page,1993).The protein of
The genetic alterations leading to the
mutated/inactivated P53 accumulates in the
neoplastic transformation of the thyroid
cell at the level detectable by immuno-
follicular epithelium are not completely
histochemistry, whereas wild type P53
understood. However, the transformation is
normally does not. For this reason, P53
reported to involve the activation of
immunochemistry represents a possibility
oncogenes and the loss of functional tumor
to get inside into the process of neoplastic

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 10)

Assessment of Certain cytokines, The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 878­ 599

Cytokines, Lipid Peroxide and Nitric Oxide in Egyptian
Hepatocellular Carcinoma on Top of
HCV and HBV Infection

Osman E.E., Mabrouk F.M., Hassan H.A., Aboelyazed S.M.,
sINT Medicine (Girls) ­ AL AZHAR University
Salem T.H. Biochemistry ­ ASSUIT University
Ahmed G.O. Clinical Pathology Dept. AL AZHAR University
Hassan A.A. Pathology ­ AL AZHAR University


Background and Aims:
Many studies have shown the relative roles of hepatitis B and C
viruses in hepato-carcinogenesis. The aim of this study is to define the independent and
interactive roles of some cytokines namely, TNF , IL-6, IL-1 together with NO and TEARS
in the genesis of HCC following the infection with such viruses.
Patients and methods: Blood samples were taken from 58 patients with hepatocellular
carcinoma and were divided into four groups: a) 28 patients with HCV, b) 10 patients with
HBV, c) 11 patients with B+C, d) 9 patients without viral infection. In addition, 20 healthy
subjects served as control group for each, TNF , IL-6, and IL-1 were measured using
ELISA technique, in addition to NO and TBARs using chemical methods.
Results: Patients with coinfection B-C viral infection showed the highest levels in
studied parameters. Patients with HCV and HBV separately showed more or less similar results.
However, patients without viral infection showed the least higher levels comparing to the
control group.
Conclusion: Cytokines in addition to NO and TEARS have a definite role in hepatic
carcinogenesis. Coinfection with the two viruses carries a synergistic risk factor of
hepatocellular carcinoma development. Depending on the results of the studied parameters
HCV did not show predominancy on HBV. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact
mechanism of carcinogenesis especially in HCV patients.
Key Words: HCC, HCV, HBV, IL-1 , IL-16 TNF , NO. TBARs


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is
humans (Kew et al., 1997, Kondo et al,
one of the most frequent malignant tumours
2001). The epidemiological studies also
in developing countries (Laurent Purg et
indicate that the relative role of these two
al., 2001), HCC risk factors, such as
viruses in hepatocellular carcinogenesis
infection by hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV
vary considerably among different popula-
and HCV), cirrhosis of various etiology,
tions. Coinfection with the two viruses
primary hemo chromatosis, and prolonged
carries a synergistic risk of hepatocellular
exposure to Afatoxin BI, are well proven
carcinoma formation.
(Kato, 2001). However, the carcinogensis
mechanisms are still poorly understood and
secreted in the liver mostly by kupffer cells
seem to differ according to the risk factor
and play a key role in inflammatory
involved (Arbuthnot and Kew, 2001) and
processes and immunological responses
(Umeda and Hino, 2002). Epidemiological
related to liver diseases, which are initiated
by hepatocytes damage (Flisiak, 1999).
established that chronic infection with
Peter et al. (2000) emphasized a central role
hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C
for interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble
virus (HCV) are the major risk factors for
interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R) in liver
regeneration. They added that, a possible

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 11)

Effect of Aging on the Pancreas of Albino Rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 591­ 603

Effects Of Aging On Pancreatic Islet Cell Function : An Experimental
Immunohistochemical And Ultrastructural Study

Ahmed H.Abdel-Rahman1 ­ Hassan Abdel-Hady Hassan1 ­ Mohamed A. Kasem2 ­ Hosam
El-Din H. Osman3 ­ Hanan S. Abdel-Hamid4- Mohamed El- Basil5 ­
Mohammed A. Mashahit6
From Departments of Pathology1 , Histology2 and Anatomy3, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine
(Assuit& Cairo), Departments of Pathology4and Internal Medicine5, Kasr El-Aini Faculty of
Medicine (Cairo) and Department of Internal Medicine6,Al-Fayoum University.


A strong relationship between aging and diabetes mellitus has been clinically suggested,
however, none of the previous published data had clearly focused on the age-related
cytomorphological changes in the pancreas which are the goal of this study.Three groups of
male apparently healthy rabbits have been used, ten animals each; classified as group-1 (3-
5months old); group-2 (9-12 months old) and group-3 (24-36 months old). After sacrification,
sections from the pancreas were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Gomori trichromic
stain & ultrastructurally to detect aging histologic changes as well as immunohistochemically
to identify insulin and glucagon secreting cells using their appropriate monoclonal antibodies .
A progressive histological distortion with fibrosis and fatty changes were directly
proportional to age, being mild in group-2 and severe in group-3. Morphometric studies by
computerized image analysis showed that the mean number of islets was significantly higher in
group2 (8.98±1.51), lowest in group-1 (5.08±1.48) and intermediate in group-3 (6.37±1.37).
The mean diameter and square area of islets were significantly higher in group-2 compared to
other groups (P< 0.05). The mean number of cells per islet & their secretary granules were
significantly (P <0.05) higher in group-2, intermediate in group-1 and lowest in group-3.In
contrast, the mean number of cells per islet and their secretory granules were insignificantly
(P< 0.05) higher in group -2, intermediate in group-3 and lowest in group-1.Also, the / ratio
( cells/ cells) was greatest in group-2 (3.059:1), intermediate in group-1 (3.37:1), and lowest
in group-3 (2.479:1).
The increased number of cells may be due to a compensatory process to correct the
hormonal feedback mechanism of insulin .The results of this work suggest that cells are
generally more vulnerable to aging, an observation which might be correlated clinically with
higher incidence of diabetes in older ages.


Elderly humans have altered cellular
progresses that orchestrate many of the
redox levels and suppressed regenerative
degenerative processes associated with
responses, both of which are key events
aging (Hu et al, 2000).
underlying the progression of chronic
Aging is usually associated with
degenerative diseases of aging, such as
decreasing glucose tolerance and more
atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and
susceptibility to diabetes (De Fronzo,
1984). It was also shown that insulin
maintained cellular redox levels lead to
secretion in rabbits decreases with age,
elevated activation of nuclear transcription
even with calorie restriction (Reaven and
factors such as NFKB (nuclear factor kappa
Reaven 1981). The decreased ability to
beta) and AP-1. These factors are
maintain homeostasis may be a major factor
coordinately responsible for a huge range of
in the pathogenesis of age-induced diabetes
(Meites et al., 1987). The mechanisms that
are implicated in diabetogenesis could be
remodeling, oncogenesis and apoptosis
related to functional deficiency of the

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 12)

Nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Egypt The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 604­ 615

Nutritional Status of Mentally Disabled Children in Egypt

*Asmaa M AbdAllah, **Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny and ***Sahar Khairy
* Clinical Nutrition Department, Nutrition Institute.
**Nutritional Biochemistry Department, Nutrition Institute
*** Nutritional Requirement and Growth Department, Nutrition Institute


Mental disability can interfere with education and scholastic achievement. It
can lead to school dropout and minimize opportunities to participate in the labor force.
Moreover, disabilities affect the overall health and psychological state of the individuals.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of mentally
disabled children in Egypt on the basis of anthropometric indicators and laboratory data.
Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study was conducted on 639 mentally disable
children aged 6-<14 years (422males and 217females), from urban areas. They were classified
into two age groups (6-<11& 11-<14 years). The following variables were determined using Z
score indicator of weight for age, height for age and weight for height. Also, body mass index,
mid arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness percentiles were determined. Laboratory
investigation including blood hemoglobin concentration and plasma levels of vitamin A and -
tocopherol as well as plasma zinc, copper and magnesium concentration were estimated.
Results: Prevalence of underweight was 14.1% by Wt/age Z score. Stunting was
estimated among 33.5% with significantly higher prevalence in older children. Muscle &fat
depletion was detected in 30.2%, with significantly higher prevalence among males than
females. Depleted fat store was detected in 14.7% of children. Wasting was documented in
14.1% of children by BMI percentile, and was significantly higher among males than females.
No significant difference was detected between male and female handicapped children
regarding mean blood hemoglobin values as well as mean plasma levels of the measured
vitamins and minerals, except for mean plasma zinc level. The overall prevalence of iron
deficiency anemia was higher in males (41.5%) than females (37.1%). Deficiency of -
tocopherol was more prevalent than that of vitamin A. The overall prevalence of deficiency of
zinc, magnesium and copper was 1.8%, 40%, and 25.3% respectively. The decline in
anthropometric measurements was associated with the decline in socioeconomic status.
Conclusion: Malnutrition as revealed by anthropometric variables and micronutrient
deficiency occurs with a high prevalence among mentally disabled children and almost
increased with age and low socioeconomic level.
Key words: Mental handicap- Children- Anthropometric measurements- Social status-
Blood hemoglobin- Plasma- Vitamin A- -tocopherol- Zinc-Copper-Magnesium.


Adequate nutrition is a fundamental
consequences for the health, wellbeing and
prerequisite for good physical health, motor
development of children (Crabb, 2000).
and cognitive development and social
Economic conditions may influence the
parent's responses to their children's
Malnourished children can become adults
condition. (Mallory et al., 1993).
with lower physical and intellectual
Disabled people are often assumed to
abilities, lower levels of productivity and
have poorer nutrition than their non-
higher levels of chronic illness and
disabled counterparts, they are also
disability, (UNICEF, 1998). Poverty and
vulnerable to poor nutritional care (Bax,
1993). This is the situation in developed

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 13)


Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impacts of Schistosomal and Intestinal
Parasitic Infections Among Rural School Children in Sohag Governorate

H. M. El-Masry; Y. A. Ahmed; A. A. Hassan; S. Zaky*; E. S. Abd-Allah**;
E. A. El-Moselhy***; Y. A. Baraka*** And M. A. Abdel-Rahem****
Departments of Pediatrics; Tropical Medicine*; Community Health Nursing**; Community
Medicine*** and Parasitology****
Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, Al-Azhar and Zagazig University


Parasitic diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in most
parts of the world. Hygiene and play habits make children especially vulnerable to schistosomal
and parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of different types of
parasitic infections, to define their risk factors and to determine their impacts on health and
scholastic absenteeism and achievement of rural school students in Sohag Governorate, Egypt.
A cross-section, analytical study design was chosen to perform this research on 960 rural school
students. All the students were interviewed and examined clinically and laboratory. The study
showed that 38.5% of the students were infected by parasites. Entaemoeba histolytica,
Enterobius vermicularis
and Giardia lamblia had the highest percentages, 20.4%, 16.6% and
15.2%, respectively. Male sex, last birth order, poor personal hygiene, low socioeconomic level,
3 infected siblings, previous parasitic infections and no early consultation for therapy were
important risk factors (ORs=1.41, 2.32, 2.63, 2.86, 4.17, 9.80 and 10.83, respectively). Also,
29.2% and 31.6% of infected students were below the 5th percentiles as regard weight-for-age
and height-for-age, respectively. Anemia was present among 52.4% of infected students.
Further, 3.2% of them had hepatomegaly. Also, 37.8% and 41.1% of infected students had 0-3
and 4-6 days/month absent, respectively, while, 34.3% of infected students had a scholastic
achievement <50.0%. Improving personal and environmental hygiene and regular screening,
treatment and health education for students as regard parasitic infections in Egypt is


Although all infectious agents in
intellectually compromised by anemia,
humans are parasites, by convention,
leading to attention deficits, learning
parasitic diseases are defined as those
disabilities, school absenteeism and higher
caused by protozoa or helminthes (Chacon-
dropout rates (WHO, 2001). The failure to
Cruz and Mitchell, 2007). The burden of
treat school-age children therefore hampers
child development, yields a generation of
adults disadvantaged by the irreversible
helminthes (STH) remains enormous.
sequelae of infection, and compromises the
About 2 billion people are affected
economic development of communities and
worldwide, of whom 300 million suffer
nations (WHO/WER, 2006). So, parasitic
diseases represent a major cause of
infections represented more than 40.0% of
morbidity and mortality in childhood in
the disease burden caused by all tropical
most parts of the world, as parasites are
diseases, excluding malaria (WHO/WER,
endemic in many parts of the world with no
2006). Hygiene and play habits make
specific area is spared. Although, infections
due to protozoa and helminthes have
schistosomal and STH infections. There are
about 400 million school-age children
(Mahmoud, 1983). So, unfinished agenda
infected. They are often physically and
for the fight against infectious parasitic

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 14)

Possible protection of Vitamin E and Alpha-lipoic acid against early changes in alloxan diabetic rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 631­ 646

Possible protection of Vitamin E and Alpha-lipoic acid against early changes
in alloxan diabetic rats.

Sohair A. Moustafa, Nahla S. El-Shenawy and Amro M. Elgheznawy
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic syndrome affecting carbohydrate, fat, protein and nucleic
acid metabolism. The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of vitamin E
and alpha lipoic acid in combination as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in
the protection against early complication of diabetes. Administration of alloxan (125 mg/kg wt,
i.p.) to rats resulted in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia,
hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, increase in plasma levels of urea, blood urea nitrogen
(BUN), creatinine, uric acid as well as pancreatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
(TBARS) and glutathione (GSH) content of both liver and retina. These changes were
accompanied with significant decrease in plasma total protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF),
hepatic catalase activity (CAT), and TBARS level of both liver and retina as compared to
control group. However, plasma levels of calcium ions (Ca+2) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as
pancreatic GSH content were not changed. On the other hand, the daily treatment of the diabetic
rats with antioxidant mixture attained a reduction in plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol,
triglycerides, total lipids, urea, BUN, creatinine, uric acid, TNF, pancreatic TBARS level as
well as GSH content of both liver and retina. In contrast, the daily treatment caused an increase
in plasma levels of insulin, total proteins, hepatic CAT activity and pancreatic GSH content as
compared to diabetic rats. However, plasma levels of Ca+2 and NO as well as TBARS content of
both liver and retina were not affected. In conclusion, it is obvious from the present study results
that early stage (two weeks) of diabetes induce deteriorate changes in carbohydrate, lipid,
protein and nucleic acid metabolism accompanied with increasing of oxidative stress in
pancreas as compared to both of liver and retina. Moreover, the data of present study indicated
the effective role of vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid combination in combating the oxidative
stress via its improvement to metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in
addition to its free radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties.


Diabetes mellitus is widely recog-
and protein glycation (Wolff & Dean, 1987
nized as one of the leading causes of death
and Hunt et al., 1990) as well as decreasing
in the world (Devendra et al., 2004). It is
the activity of enzymic and nonenzymic
defined as a state in which homeostasis of
antioxidant (Godin et al., 1988 and
carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is impr-
Asayama et al., 1989). High levels of free
operly regulated, resulting in elevated blood
radicals cause damage to cellular proteins,
glucose levels (Ramkumar et al., 2007).
membrane lipids, and nucleic acids
The presence of high glucose levels in
resulting in eventually cell death (Maritim
vivo can alter a number of biochemical
et al., 2003).
processes (Hopfner and Gopalakrishnan,
Currently-available drug regimens for
1999). This in turn may affect the function
management of diabetes mellitus have
of different organs such as liver, pancreas,
certain drawbacks such as vascular compl-
and retina (Ramkumar et al., 2007).
ications and hepatotoxicity (Ramkumar et
Numerous studies have shown that
al., 2007). Therefore, there is a need for
there is an increase in production and
safer and more effective antidiabetic drugs
release of free radicals with diabetes and
(Shu, 1998; Grover et al., 2002 and Kaleem
reported that they play a role in diabetic
et al., 2006). Antioxidants have been used
complications through glucose autoxidation
extensively in experimental diabetes to

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 15)

Preparation of 99mTc-Carnosine and 99mTcO-(V)-DMSA Complexes, Biological Distribution, and Estimation of Their Gene Anti- Poly The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 647­ 663

Preparation of 99mTc-Carnosine and 99mTcO-(V)-DMSA Complexes,
Biological Distribution, and Estimation of Their Gene Anti- Polymorphisms
Induced by -Irradiation

E.A. EL-Ghany, F. Marzouk, Samy A. Abd El-Azim1, M.H. Awwad2
and M.A. Barakat1
Labeled Compound Department, Hot Lab. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt,
1Faculty of pharmacy, Cairo university
2Faculty of Science, Benha university


Background: Two chelating agents (Carnosine and DMSA) were used to study their
labeling conditions with technetium-99m followed by biological distribution investigation.
Molecular studies were done via PCR/RFLP analysis of angiotensin II subtype II receptor gene
for monitoring their antioxidant activity through free iron chelation leading to inhibition of
Fenton reaction.
Material and methods: Carnosine was labeled by mixing 4 mg with 30 mg glucose and
25 g SnCl2.2H2O, followed by pertechnetate and stand at room temperature for 60 minutes.
Minor modification was done to prepare 99mTc(V)-DMSA tracer in one step, by adding
pertechnetate solution to the lyophilized kit contains 1mg DMSA, 0.1 mg SnCl2.2H2O, and 30
mg glucose at pH 9. The biodistribution of the two tracers in normal and tumor-induced mice.
The molecular investigation of the anti-oxidant activity of both carnosine and DMSA in 6 Gy -
irradiated rats using the anti-inflammatory angiotensin II subtype II receptor gene (AT2RG) as
Results: Carnosine and DMSA were labeled with Technetium-99m yielding 85% and
97%, respectively the ability of both tracers to localize in tumor sites but the priority to the
99mTc (V)-DMSA. Molecular studies showed strong antioxidant activity of carnosine but not
enough to block radiation induced oxidative stress and Moderate antioxidant activity of DMSA
was achieved by chelating free iron and iron released through oxidative stress. Maximum
protection was achieved through the dual action of both DMSA and carnosine.
Conclusion: moderate and high labeling yield were achieved for both 99mTc(V)DMSA and
99mTc-canosine respectively with higher selectivity of the former to tumor sites and maximum
protection were achieved by the dual action of both chelating agents.
Key Words: Carnosine / DMSA / Anti-oxidant / Technetium-99m Labeling


The steadily increasing use of nuclear
target for the damaging effects of ionizing
and radiation technologies in medicine,
radiation and endogenously induced reac-
industry, agriculture and scientific research,
tive oxygen species. Ionizing radiation
has been paralleled by increasing potential
produces through direct and indirect effects
risk for radiation over acute exposure. This
a variety of DNA lesions, such as single
may be intended as in the case with medical
strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks
and occupational exposure or accidental as
(DSBs), a variety of base modifications,
a shot dose as in the case with accidental
sugar modifications) and DNA-DNA and
exposures. Invivo effects of radiation on
DNA- protein cross-link (O'Neill and.
biological systems are obviously so
Fielden, 1993; Wallace, 2002 and von
complicated to be fully analyzed. So most
Sonntag, 1987s. The DSB is generally
of the investigators have undertaken invitro
thought to be the main lesion involved in
studies in order to minimize the role played
cell killing and formation of chromosomal
by many interfering parameters as enco-
aberrations (Johnston et al., 1998; Jeggo,
untered invivo experimentation (Moseley
1990 and Pfeiffer, 1998). Many of the
and Belin, 1984). DNA is an important
lesions induced by ionizing radiation are

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 16)

Histological and histochemical study of effects of storage on blood cells morphology and their importance The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 664­ 671

Histological and histochemical study of effects of arsenic on
the liver of adult male rabbits

Ibrahim K. Ibrahim
Faculty Of Medicine, AL-Azhar University-Assuit


Arsenic is an environmental toxicant and a human carcinogen.
Epidemiology studies link human arsenic exposure to various diseases and cancers, including
liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. From this point of view, this study is designed to
investigate the effects of arsenic histologically and histochemically on the liver of adult male
Material and methods: twenty adult male rabbits were used and divided into four groups.
Each group consisted of five rabbits, one group used as a control given an equivalent volume of
distilled water and three groups given sodium arsenite in distilled water for 6, 12 and 18 weeks
respectively. Paraffin sections from all groups prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin,
and periodic acid-schiff.
Results: histological and histochemical changes in arsenic groups were marked
vacuolation of hepatocytes with focal areas of hepatocellular degeneration. Loss of hepatic
architecture was also observed. Marked dilatation and congestion of the central veins and
mononuclear cellular infiltration were obvious. Quantitative analysis of intracellular glycogen
stores of all groups using image analyzing system revealed gradual significant depletion of
intracellular glycogen stores.
Conclusion: it was concluded that arsenic is a hepatotoxic agent in the adult male rabbits.


Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs
exposed to arsenite or arsenate via drinking
naturally in soil, water, and air. Arsenicals
water for 48 weeks, liver parenchymal cell
are also by-products of production of
degeneration and fatty infiltration are wid-
various metals, as well as coal consum-
espread, with inflammation, focal necrosis
ption. A major concern for environmental
and early proliferative lesions (Liu et al.,
arsenic exposure and human health is its
2000). Hepatocellular proliferative lesions
carcinogenic potential in multiple organs.
(adenoma and foci of cellular alteration)
Arsenic is a human carcinogen, causing
were increased by repeated arsenate
cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder,
injections in female Swiss mice in a recent
and liver (Abernathy et al., 1999; Goering
2-year study (Waalkes et al., 2000).
et al., 1999). However, the molecular
Additionally, chronic exposure to arsenite
mechanisms of arsenic toxicity and carcino-
in vitro can cause malignant transformation
genesis are only poorly understood. The
of rodent liver cells (Zhao et al., 1997).
liver is a major target organ of inorganic
Thus, it is clear that chronic arsenic
arsenic toxicity. In rats given oral arsenate
exposure produces liver toxicity and,
(20-60 ppm) for up to 6 weeks, swollen
possibly, carcinogenicity in rodents, which
mitochondria and altered liver function
is consistent with its hepatic effects in
were evident (Fowler et al., 1977). Hepatic
humans. Arsenic-induced liver toxicity in
fatty infiltration and degenerative lesions
humans is, in fact, a common phenomenon.
(such as vacuolation) became evident after
Liver injury induced by arsenic exposure,
12 months of oral exposure of mice to a
either from the long-term use of arsenic-
mixture of arsenite and arsenate, which can
containing Fowler's solution in the
progress to liver fibrosis by 15 months
treatment of psoriasis (Morris et al., 1974;
(Santra et al., 1997). In mice chronically
Nevens et al., 1990), or from arsenic

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 17)

HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 672­ 684

Histological Study Of The Influence Of Bioactive Glass On Bone Healing
(An Experimental Study On Rat Femur)

*K. M.T. Eraba, **Elsayed G. Khedr, **Tarek A. Atia ***Salah E. Mourad,
Faculty Of Science, Department Of Physics*; Faculty Of Medicine, Departments
Of Histology**And Anatomy***; Al Azhar University


The objective
is to study the histological influence of the bioactive glass on bone healing
in surgically created holes in rat's femur.
Methods: The two wall holes were made in the right femurs by 2-mm drill, filled with
bioactive glass in the examined rats. Another two wall holes were made similarly in the right
femurs of other group of rats without filling with bioactive glass and used as the control group.
Animals were regularly examined over a period of five weeks for bone healing.
Result: Histological examination of both control and treated sites showed newly formed
bone. The newly formed ostoid tissue was significantly increased in the treated holes in the form
of foci of newly formed bone around and within the glass particles. In the control group, the
junctional epithelium migrated up to the base of the hole.
Conclusion: The treated animals with bioactive glass had better healing than control. The
bioactive glass particles have osteo-conductive property as well as osteo-stimulatory capacity.
The graft material showed a promising inhibition of greater cementum deposition in the bone
holes. We can use it in Osteosurgery as it can promote bone healing.
Key words: Bioactive glass, bone hole, bone healing, histological changes.


Bone is the most common organ
hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone tissue
substitute. 45S5 bioactive glass is the most
Currently, both biological and synthetic
bone bioactive material known to date. In
grafts have been used for bone repair. The
addition to being osteointegrative, the
autogenous material is still the best choice
for reconstruction of bone holes. Several
osteoinductive nature of 45S5 bioactive
materials have been introduced for bone
glass has been well documented (de
grafts, i.e., autografts, allografts, xenografts
Macedo et al., 2004). Several in vitro
and alloplastic grafts, but the currently
studies have shown the non-toxicity of
available materials have not shown the
bioactive glass, its positive influence on
predictable bony regenerative effect (de
osteoblast culture, inhibitory capacity on
Macedo et al., 2004). Ideally, a bone graft
fibroblast proliferation and ability to form
should be biocompatible, able to support
calcified foci in periodontal ligament
abundant bone formation (osteocondu-
fibroblasts. The first studies on bioactive
ctive), able to induce bone formation
glass and the possibility of its application as
(osteoinductive), able to form a continuous
a bone filling material were published early
interface with surrounding bone tissue
in the 1970's and 1980's. This material has
a granular shape and composed of 45%
angiogenesis, and able to be structurally
SiO2, 24.5% CaO, 24.5% Na2O and 6%
and mechanically compatible with bone
P2O5 (Hench, 1991).
tissue (Lu et al., 2003).
Biomaterials, such as bioactive glass,
The interest in the development and
glass-ceramics and calcium phosphates
use of a synthetic material has led to the
(Ca-Ps) have been widely studied for
development of several studies evaluating
orthopedic and dental applications. It has
been relies on their ability to induce

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 18)

Studies of the Genotoxic and Histopathological effects of the Organophosphorous insecticide 'Profenofos' on white rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 685­ 706

Studies of the Genotoxic and Histopathological effects of the
Organophosphorous insecticide 'Profenofos' on white rats.

Fatma M. Hammam* and Eman M. Abd el Mottaleb**
*Department Of Mammalian Toxicology, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory,
Agricultural Research Centre, Ministry Of Agriculture
**Department of pathology, Animal Health Research Institute


Genotoxic effects of agricultural chemicals are of special concern because of their
generally irreversible effects and the long latency associated with their manifestation. These
effects include heritable genetic diseases, carcinogenesis, reproductive dysfunction and birth
defects. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the organophosphorous
insecticide "profenofos" on white albino rats. The rats were treated for 28 days with three
different doses of profenofos (1/20 LD50, 1/40 LD50, and 1/80 LD50). Then the animals were
left without treatments for 14 days for possible recovery. The genotoxic effect of the pesticide
was evaluated by using the micronucleus assay in the bone marrow and polymorphism of
glutathione S-transferase (GST) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results demonstrated
that the treatment with profenofos caused a significant increase in the frequencies of
micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Results of polymorphism of both GSTM1 and
GSTT1 showed positive genotype in the control group. While the results of GSTT1
polymorphism in the treated rats showed positive genotype in all doses of profenofos. The
GSTM1 polymorphism showed positive genotype in the high and medium doses (1/20 LD50
and 1/40 LD50) but not in the low dose (1/80 LD50), where the GSTM1 was null (negative)
genotype. After the recovery period the polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was found to be
positive genotype, except with the low dose (1/80 LD50) showed null genotype for GSTM1
gene. The histopathological data showed that profenofos exhibited histopathological changes in
liver, kidney, spleen and tests. Liver showed hepatic cell damage with degenerative changes.
The kidney showed heamorrhages, edema, necrosis and glomeruli shrinkage. The spleen
showed slight deplesion of the lymphocytes of the white pulp. The tests showed interstitial
edema and severe necrosis of spermatogenesis. From these results we concluded that the
profenofos exert genotoxic and histopathological effects on albino white rats.
Key words: Profenofos, Micronucleus, GSTM1, GSTT1, Organophosphorous.


Recently, the pesticides problem has
Several studies all over the world showed
been in the focus of public interest. While
the cancer risk after exposure to
the usage of pesticides is still the most
insecticides. (Wild, 1978 & Iarc, 1991).
effective and accepted means to protect

plants from the pests and to increases
productivity. The wide spread of pesticides
(Micronucleus assay):
is connected with serious problems of
The micronucleus test has been used
pollution and health hazards (Fahmy and
as an in-vivo cytogenetic test to estimate the
Darwish, 2002). Genotoxic effects are
considered among the most serious side
effects of pesticides. The effects include
heritable genetic diseases, carcinogenesis,
chromosomes left behind during mitotic
reproductive dysfunction and birth defects.
cellular division and appear in the

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 19)


Effects Of Body Weight On Some House Works Efficacy And Some
Physiological Parameters Of Females

Mohamed Zakaria Al-Etreby., Fawzy Ahmed Mohamed Ashour., Khaled
Ahmed Ezam*And Atef Mohamed Mosa Sharaf
Physiology Department, Al-Azhar And Al-Mansoura* Faculties Of Medicine


In this work the effect of excess body weight on house works and some physiological
parameters were conducted on twelve females' university students. The students were divided
into a control (normal weight) group and experimental (overweight) group. The weakly cleaning
of the living room was chosen as house work. A room was prepared as a living room with some
furniture like tables, chairs, a sofa and cupboard in addition to a carpet on the ground and
curtains on the walls. Observation of complexion, tremors, behavior reflecting boredom , level
and time of performance as well as any complaint as tiredness, back pain, leg pain. Some
physiological parameters as pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate forced respiratory capacity
and expiratory time were measured.
The results showed that overweight has passive effect on time and level of performance;
also it affects the circulatory functions more than the respiratory functions. So house works are
not considered as hard work and not sufficient to reduce body weight in overweight women.
Also house works can be tolerated and there is no need to restrict activity to guard against
respiratory distress


Excess weight in females actually
Knobler., 2006) That's due to the excessive
represents a multi-aspect problem. Beside
the harmful health effects accompanying
unawareness of importance of sports
excess weight; it also has social and
practice and sedentary life (Maffeis et al.,
psychological effects (Friedman et al.,
1995). Many housewives suffer from
The relation between body weight and
excess weight especially at the age of forty
work performance especially in the field of
as a result of biological changes (Pronk et
housework doesn't receive the enough care.
al., 2004). Some females believe that just
So the aim of this work is to throw light on
physical activities either in house or office
the effect of excess body weight on
works are sufficient for preserving weight
performance of housework and some
stability, avoiding many diseases and
physiological parameters in woman.
improving general health (Stunkard et al.,

1996). Studies demonstrated that a most
Individual And Methods
lazy subject can enjoy good health if he

spends 30 minutes or more in daily physical
Twelve female university students
activities. Steidl and Braton (1967)
were chosen .Their weight range between
indicated that body weight directly affect
(60-99 kg), their age ranged between (18-22
physical performance and bearing the daily
years) and clinically free as regard
life burdens and that excess weight increase
cardiopulmonary diseases, diabetes and
the complaining of feeling tired, back and
skeletal deformity.
joint pain as well as leg difficulties. Inspite
Student with body weight range from
of cultural progress, which was supposed to
60 kg to 65 kg and height range from 160
raise the individual awareness of health
cm to 165 cm were considered of normal
care and caring for beauty measures, rates
weight while those with body weight
of excess weight increased (Malnick and
range from 92 kg to 99 kg and height range

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 20)

Growth hormone (GH) affects a wide variety of physiological parameters such as growth performance, carcass composition, and mi The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 713­ 725

Identification of Athletic Human Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphisms

Mohammed H Awwad* and Hany A. Eldeeb**
* Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Benha University.
** Department of Training sports, Faculty of Physical Education, Monofia University.


Background: PCR/RFLP of Human growth hormone gene was used to differentiate
among ten athletes.
Results: AatI, AviII, BsaI, HindII, and SacI restriction endonucleases gave high levels of
intraspecific profile for all the studied gene of the ten athletes. Other enzymes including AvaI,
Age and DraI were tested for their ability to differentiate these individuals.
Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the HGH gene contains useful genetic markers
for the identification of athletes.
Key words: Polymorphisms, Athletes, PCR/RFLPs, HGH gene.


Human growth hormone (GH) affects
are demonstrated in studies in adults with
a wide variety of physiological parameters
GH deficiency, where modest doses of
such as growth performance, carcass
rhGH have been shown to increase lean
composition, and milk production (Chung
body mass, skeletal muscle mass, proximal
et al., 1983; Bauman et al., 1985 and
muscle force, and maximal and submaximal
Etherton et al., 1986). The genomic
aerobic performance and to reduce fat mass
structure of the GH gene has been studied
(Cuneo et al., 1992). Other potentially
in different animals, including rat (Barta et
beneficial effects of GH administration in
al., 1981), bovine (Woychik et al., 1982),
adults with GH deficiency include
sheep (Byrne et al., 1987), pig (Vize and
increased cardiac output during exercise,
Wells 1987), human (Fiddes et al, 1979;
increased sweating rates and improved
Roskam et al., 1979 and DeNoto et al.,
thermal homeostasis, lipolysis to provide
1981), goat (Kioka et al., 1989), chicken
fuel for endurance sports, and possibly
(Tanaka et al., 1992), and mice (Das et al.,
enhanced ligamentous strength and wound-
1996). These animals share a similar gene
structure containing five exons and four
supraphysiological doses of rhGH include
sodium and water retention (acute onset)
HGH is a polypeptide hormone
and accelerated osteoarthritis, hypertension,
suspected of being used by elite athletes to
cardiac failure, and an increased incidence
enhance sporting performance. Discovery
of malignancies (delayed onset). Such
of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in the
concerns do not appear to deter abuse.
possessions of Chinese swimmers bound
The International Olympic Committee
Championships and similar problems at the
administration of GH by athletes to enhance
Tour de France cycling event in 1998
performance, but there is currently no
strongly suggest the abuse of GH at an elite
approved means of detection. Measurement
level. This problem may affect the broader
of serum or urinary total GH itself is
community, as shown by a report of GH use
unlikely to represent an optimal detection
in high-school students in the U.S. (Rickert
method because: 1) exogenous rhGH and
et al., 1992).
endogenous GH have identical amino acid
The rationale for the use of exogenous
GH to enhance athletic performance is
immunological distinction difficult; 2)
multifactorial. GH administration during
normal serum GH concentrations fluctuate
childhood may augment adult height. GH's
widely, reflecting endogenous pulsatility
anabolic and lipolytic actions (Press, 1988)
and responses to stress and exercise (Cuneo

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 21)

Different approaches in pilonidal disease The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 726­ 731
Pilonidal disease simple pathogenesis but complex management

Mohammed Hassan MD1, Ayman Refaat MD2 Amr Aiad MD3, Wael L.
Tobar MD4, Islam Gamal MD, MRCS5
Department of Surgery1,3,4,5,Cairo University. Department of Surgery2,
Beni-Suef University


Design: retrospective study
Patients & Methods: the study was conducted on 75 patients suffering PND with a male
to female ratio 59 to 16 done between May 2004 to June 2007 with a follow up range 8-13 and a
median of 10.7 months. Sixty four patients had sacrococcygeal disease, 9 patients had umbilical
disease, and 1 patient had suprapubic while 1 patient had axillary disease. For sacrococcygeal
disease Limberg operation was done in 26.5% (n=17), abscess drainage and curettage in 31.2%
(n=20), Bascom operation in 23% (n=15) while conservative treatment in 31.2% (n=20).For
umbilical disease, omphalectomy was done in all cases (n=9). Conservative treatment was done
for suprapubic disease while excision followed by primary closure was done in axillary disease
(n=1) after failure of conservation.
Aim: to evaluate different modalities in treating pilonidal disease (PND)
Results: For sacrococcygeal disease, patients who received Limberg procedure (n=17)
showed complete resolution in 88.2% (n=15) with recurrence rate 11.8% (n=2). Those who
received Bascom operation showed complete resolution after all procedures with no recurrence
during the follow up period. Patients who received conservative treatment (n=20) showed a
success rate of 70% (n=14) with recurrence rate of 30% (n=6) who received Bascom procedure
later for their recurrence. For umbilical, suprapubic and axillary disease; omphalectomy,
conservative treatment and excision with primary closure were used respectively with no
complications encountered.
Conclusion: For sacrococcygeal disease, Bascom operation was found to be superior
over other modalities with respect to smooth postoperative period and early healing while in
umbilical disease conservation shows higher success rate.


Pilonidal disease (PND) is a chronic
PND is a common problem due to the
infection of the skin which occurs as a
need for frequent and time consuming
sequence of an inflammatory reaction
wound care in addition to high recurrence
secondary to embedded hairs located
rates following surgery ( Iesalnieks et al.,
commonly in the natal cleft, less commonly
in umbilicus, suprapubic, axillary ,
Simple excision carries a higher incidence
interdigital spaces of the hand or rarely
of wound complications and recurrence
peri-areolar or in the prepuce.
(42%). Many other alternatives as Bascom
The disease is more common among
procedure, Limberg procedure, Karydakis
males with a peak age incidence between
procedure and their modifications showed
puberty and 40 years and is also more
superior results in many studies ( Aydede et
common in people with thick stiff type of
hair ( Hull and Wu ,2002).

The pathology of this condition is that
Patients and Methods

epithelialization of the pits extending not
Between May 2004 and July 2007, 75
more than 2-3 mm from the surface below
patients with PND treated at Cairo
which chronic abscess cavity may widely
university hospital . According to the site of
ramify ( Goligher et al., 1992) .
the disease we have patients with

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 22)

The Prevalence of Pediculosis Capitis The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 732­ 737

The Prevalence of Pediculosis Capitis In Primary School Children
In Assuit Governorate ( A Socioeconomic Study )

Amer Abu El Enin * and Ali Osman**
The Departments of Dermatology &Venereology *and Public Health **
Faculty of Medicine. AL ­ Azhar university .


This study was carried out in 2005 to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and
some risk factors among primary ­ school pupils in Assuit .We selected 1200 pupils (53% girls)
from primary schools by random sampling. Their hair was examined for head rate of infestation:
45 (3.8%) were infected with lice, 43 (95.5%) girls and 2 ( 4.5%) boys. The highest louse of
infestation was in 9 ­ years olds. There was a significant relationship between head louse
infestation and sex ( P < 0.0001), age( P< 0.05 ), parents education ( P<0.0001), father's job
(P< 0.01), family size (P< 0.01), length of hair ( P< 0.0001) and having separate bathing
facilities in the house (P< 0.0001).


Skin disorders are among the most

schoolchildren in both developing and
The Assuit city was divided into four
industrialized counters ( Markkola et al.,
sectors, the governmental free primary
1989 ; Dold S et al ., 1992 and (Huh S et
school in each sector were listed and one
al & Aydemir EH et al., and Verhagen et
school was randomly chosen from each
al., 1993)). The school environment makes
sector. A fifth private paid school know to
children vulnerable to cross ­ transmission
house pupils of a relatively high socio ­
of communicable skin diseases, which can
economic level was also included in the
then be passed on to family members
Shakkoury et al., 1999 . Head louse
One class was chosen at random from
infestation is a condition that has
the fifth grades in each of selected schools,
worldwide distribution and is seen in school
and their pupils were examined. The sample
­ age children in many countries .
size was 1200 students ranging in age from
This study was carried out to
6 - 12 years .
determine the prevalence of pediculosis

capitis and some of the factors affecting
Physical examination:
infestation among pupils in primary schools

in Assuit city .
For data collection, the student' hair

was examined carefully for the presence of
Material and methods
nits, nymphs or adult lice in the hair were

the criteria for diagnosis of head louse
The present study was carried out in
infestation. The data from this physical
Assuit city on a random sample of primary
examination were recorded for each pupil
school children representing various socio ­
along with the demographic information
economic levels during March and April
that was collected from the students or from
school documentation.


Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 23)

Tionea capities in Assuit Governrate: The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 29: 738­ 744

Tinea Capitis In Assuit Governorate:
(A Clinical and Mycological Study)

Amer Abu El ­ Enin *, Mohamed Khedr** and Alaa Abu El-Ata***
Departments of Dermatology and Venereology*, Clinical pathology **
and Microbiology *** Faculty of Medicine- Al-Azhar University.


Tinea capitis is a common condition seen by clinician in all setting through out the world.
Several investigations of the various superficial mycosewere carried out in Egypt, but they were
mainly confined to urban areas.
In the present work, the predominant species causing dermatophtosis in Assuit
Governorate were investigated, this is represented in rural and partially suburban communities.
A clinical and mycological study was done for hundred patients attending the Dermatology Out-
patient Clinic in Al- Azhar University Hospital in Assuit City. The ages of patient ranged from
3 to 20 years .

60% of cases were between 6-10 years of ages.
Males were affected more than females in a ratio of 3: 1
60% of cases were from rural areas. Positive history of contact with animals was
present in 40%.
The most common clinical variety was scaly type 55% followed by black dot 22%,
kerion 20%, and lastly favus 3%.
Direct microscopic examination was + ve in 80% of cases. Positive culture results were
obtained in 90% of cases.
The results indicated that Zoophilic dermatophytes was the predominant causative
species in these regions. Five dermatophytes were identified namely: M.canis was the
most frequently isolated organism from the clinical varieties of dermatophytosis (55%) .
followed by T. violaceum (20%). T. rubrum 12.8% , M. gypseum (10%) and lastly
T.soudanense (2.2%).

Key Words:
Tinea capitis ­ Mycology.

Materials and Methods
therapy in the last 3 weeks were not

Hundred patients, diagnosed clinically
Materials for mycological examin-
as cases of Tinea capitis attending the skin
ation obtained from the lesions was packed
and venereal diseases out ­ patients clinic
in small paper envelops scaled and labelled.
in Al-Azhar University hospital in Assuit
Direct microscopic examination of
City were investigated in this work by
15% KOH preparations was carried out.
history taking, clinical and mycological
Sabouraud's cyclohexamide chloramphe-
Patients were examined during the
nicol agar slants (Rohman et al., 1947) and
period from October 2003 to November
(Zohdi et al 1988)
2005, they were resident in Assuit and
Two slants were used for every
nearby villages. Cases known to have
patient and each slant was inoculated with
received topical or systemic antimycotic
four to five particles at 25-27 C and

Full Paper (vol.29 paper# 24)