Evaluation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in Diagnosis of Head and Neck Swellings in Bab Elsheria Hospital The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 122 ­ 127

Evaluation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in Diagnosis of Head
and Neck Swellings in Bab Elsheria Hospital

Ali Khalaf Mahrous, Abd Elsalam H Hashem, Mohamed M Elsawy,
Hesham A. Abdesallam, and Ahmed M. Abd Elfattah
Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-
Azhar University


Introduction: FNAC is believed to be of great benefit as an alternative diagnostic approach
to lesions in Head and Neck region. This study aims at evaluating the results of FNAC undertaken
in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Bab Elsheria Hospital in relation to
the International big series.
Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 42 cases with FNACs performed
between September 2004 and April 2006. All patients had both FNAC and Histology done.
Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the site of their swellings: (parotid, thyroid and
Results: The origin of the swellings in this series was 48% from the parotid gland, 19%
from the thyroid gland and 33% from other sites. The first FNAC was only diagnostic in 21
patients (50%). While the 2nd FNAC was diagnostic in 8 patients out of 15 (53.3%). The majority
of swellings with positive findings on FNAC in 29 patients had matched the histology results
(68.9%). So, the chances of getting diagnosis were about 50 % in either first or second FNAC.
The FNAC sensitivity was 69% and its specificity was 80%, which lags behind the International
big series.
Conclusion: We need to improve our FNAC results to be compared with the results of
International big series.


The initial paper concerning FNAC
(McGuirt & McCabe, 1978 and Laurence et
from Memorial Hospital for Cancer by
al., 2002)
Martin and Ellis (1930). dealt primarily with
FNAC is widely used in the
Head and Neck tumours. The superficial
assessment of patients with Head and Neck
nature of lesions in this area make them
masses; it is a safe and inexpensive
easily accessible target for aspiration biopsy
outpatient procedure with a reported
(Laurence et al., 2002).
diagnostic accuracy in malignant cases that
At our institutions, patients with Head
exceed 90%. Tschammler et al. (1998).
and Neck masses are referred to immediate
FNAC technique has disadvantages,
ultrasonographic (U/S) assessment and
which include high rate of non-diagnostic
proceed directly to U/S guided biopsy. This
samples and incomplete classifications of
process expedites referral of patients to the
lymphoma. So, the result of lymph node
appropriate clinical team and eliminates the
excision biopsy remains the standard
need for open biopsy. (Kline et al., 1984).
diagnostic tool, with all of its hazards as an
Imaging diagnosis has low specificity
invasive technique, requires G.A and
for differentiating benign from malignant
admission. Patt et al. (1993).
lesions in Head and Neck, so, a tissue
The sensitivity of the FNAC means its
diagnosis remains a standard requirement.
ability to detect true patients and is defined


Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 1)

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Nicotine on the Intervertebral disc The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 128 ­ 142
An Experimental Study of the Effects of Nicotine on the Intervertebral Disc

Nahla M. Afifi**# and Kawther A. Hafez**
**Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University
#Health Sciences Department, College of Arts & Sciences, Qatar University


Backgrounds: Clinically it had been noticed that a large proportion of patients presenting
with low back pain are smokers. Therefore, in this experimental study the histological effects of
nicotine on the lumbar intervertebral discs of the rabbits was investigated.
Material and Methods: Eighteen rabbits were divided equally into 3 groups, Group 1 (a
& b); as control. Group2 injected intraperitoneally by 5000 ng/kg nicotine daily for 4 weeks.
Group3 injected intraperitoneally by 5000 ng/kg nicotine daily for 8 weeks. The selected dose
produced blood nicotine levels equivalent to those found in heavy smokers (30 cigarettes / day).
Results: Light and electron microscopic studies revealed that nicotine injection showed a
variety of histological changes, which were not observed in the control group. This includes
appearance of spaces within the nucleus pulposus and separation from the adjacent fibrous
lamellae in the annulus fibrosus. Also loss of the regularity of the multilayered structure of the
annulus fibrosus, and excessive inclusions associated with vacuoles which continue with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum within the chondrocytes. Disc degeneration was more marked in
rabbits injected with nicotine for 8 weeks (G3) than in those injected for 4 weeks (G2).
Conclusion: It could be concluded that the disc degeneration is more common among
smokers and is correlated with the duration of exposure to nicotine.


The harmful effects of tobacco
(70%-80%). The interconnecting notoch-
smoking had been studied in every field of
ordal cells at birth are later replaced by
medicine. Epidemiological studies over the
chondrocyte-like cells (Iatridis et al., 1996).
past few decades had demonstrated an
Intervertebral disc degeneration is
association between smoking and back pain
thought to be a major factor responsible for
(Scott et al., 1999).
back pain (Buckwalter 1995). Mechanisms
The intervertebral discs are an integral
for the association of back pain and
part of the vertebral column and are
smoking are poorly understood but
essential for maintaining stability and
carboxy-hemoglobin production, vasocon-
alignment by anchoring adjacent vertebral
striction (Miller et al., 2000), arteriosc-
bodies. They allow the vertebral column to
lerotic vessel wall changes, impaired
absorb energy and distribute loads applied
fibrinolytic activity , and changes in blood
through the axial skeleton (Antoniou et al.,
flow (Ernst 1994) have all been proposed as
The intervertebral disc consists of a
intervertebral disc.
resident cell population, extracellular
Nicotine is a major contributor to the
matrix consisting of a framework of
physical addiction associated with cigarette
macromolecules and water. The proportion
smoking (Lawson et al., 1997). It enters the
systemic circulation and diffuses freely
components may vary in different regions
through capillaries into extravascular spaces
of the intervertebral disc. The nucleus
and in its free form is distributed rapidly to
pulposus consists of a gelatinous matrix
most body tissues (Rang et al., 2003). It is
composed of high concentrations of
likely that nicotine enters the intervertebral
proteoglycans, type II collagen, and water
disc through peripheral capillaries and then

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 2)

Evaluatin the The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 143­ 2

Evaluation of the Influence of each of Melatonin and Chromium against
Diabetes-Induced Alteration in the Testis of Albino Rats Using Light and
Electron Microscopies

Nabila S. Hassen* , Nadia M.El Roubi and Enayat A. Omara*
Pathology Department* National Research Centre
And Histology Department- Cairo University

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a global disabling and deadly disease found world-
wide. Altered testicular structure and function have been observed in diabetic human and animal
models of diabetes with impaired reproductive function. The testicular atrophy and infertility
were common in untreated or poorly controlled diabetics.
Aim of the work The present study was carried out to compare the protective effect of melatonin
and chromium against testicular alterations in alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats.
Material and Methods: Thirty-five adult male albino rats were used in this study. The
animals were divided into two main groups (each five): non diabetic and diabetic rats, the first
group was subdivided into 3 sub-groups: normal control, melatonin-treated animals and
chromium-treated animals. The second group was subdivided into 3 sub-group ( each five):
diabetic, diabetic rats treated with chromium, and diabetic rats treated with melatonin. Diabetes
was induced by a single intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate in dose of 60 mg/ kg
body weight (BW). The experiment was carried for forty-two days. Computer image analysis
was used to measure the thickness of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules, the
perimeter of the seminiferous tubules and the number of Leydig cells.
Results: In diabetic rats the seminiferous tubules showed statistically significant decrease
in diameter, irregular outline and deformed shape because there was degeneration and
disappearance of germ cells from many tubules. There was significant thickening of the
basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules also detected. Ultrastructurally, nuclei of germ
cells showed rarefied chromium and separated areas of nuclear envelop. Spermatids showed
abnormal condensed nuclear chromatin surrounded by membranes with focal areas of
discontinuity together with vacuolation of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Melatonin and chromium
improved the diabetic alteration in the basement membranes, diameter of the seminiferous
tubules and the number of Leydig cells but they did not return to the control values. The
improvement with melatonin was more than that with chromium.
Conclusion: From the present study, it could be concluded that, melatonin and chromium
showed a protective effect on histological alterations of the testis of alloxan-induced diabetes in
Keywords: Diabetes, alloxan, testis, melatonin and chromium.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects a
carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
considerable number of humans and is a
Furthermore, Salahdeen and Alada (2007)
serious disease that has metabolic complic-
added that DM is a genetically determined
ations that leads to early morbidity and
chronic disorder of carbohydrate metab-
mortality (Feldman ,Stevens and Greene,
olism that results in clinical syndrome
1997). Colling and Dicarlo (1995) and
combining several pathological events into
Sousa Lion et al. (2004) stated that DM is
a common clinical picture.
a constellation of anatomical and bioche-
Altered testicular structure and
mical abnormalities resulting in disorder of
function have been observed in diabetic

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 3)

ţ˙H)H)H) The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 163­ 175
Aspergillus fumigatus and Cylindrocarpon candidum fungi induced apoptosis
in HepG 2 cell line through activation of caspases enzymes

Osman, M.E. *, L,A,R, Sallam**, Wafaa Abdallah Ahmed***, Khttab, O.H.*,
Abo EL-Nasser, A.A*
* Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of science, Helwan University.
**National Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Natural Products Chemistry
Egypt.***Department of Cancer Biology, Cancer Institute, Cairo University.


Introduction: Many investigations are now interested to discover naturally occurring
compounds, which can be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Most natural
products which may be used as adjuvant therapy or to reduce the side effect of chemotherapy
and radiotherapy. More than 300 products obtained from microorganisms have antitumor
Results: In the study we isolated N-(3-4-Dichlorophenyl) 2-Methyl, 2,3Dihydroxypropio
amide from Aspergillus fumigatus and 2.4.6. Triphenyl pyridine from Cylindrocarpon
and investigate the cytotoxic effect and apoptotic effect on HepG2 cell line. The
results revealed high cytotoxic effect at the concentration of 400µg/ml for both N-(3-4-
Dichlorophenyl) 2-Methyl, 2,3Dihydroxypropio amide and 2.4.6. Triphenyl pyridine and effect
is increase with time of incubation. The apoptotic effect of both products were investigated by
measurement the caspase enzymes, the results showed highest activity of caspase 3 and caspase
9. Also at concentration 400µg/ml in both products.
Conclusion: From this data we observe that two isolated product have antitumor effect
and this effect is related to the concentration of the products and incubation period. Also, the
two products induce apoptosis through increase activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 which
lead to programmed of cell death. This study need to furthermore study on experimental animal
to confirm our results.


The first line of cancer treatment is
300 antitumor agents have been isolated
surgery which has significantly reduced the
from microorganisms, 13% have been
cancer mortality. The use of additional
obtained from fungi. Of 43 antitumor
treatment such as radiotherapy and chemo-
agents obtained from fungi, 23 come from
therapy has resulted in no more than 5%
the imperfect fungi, 15 from the Basid-
reduction of death (Samantha et al., 2003).
iomycetes and 5 from the Ascomycetes.
The development of tumor drug resistance
Zhang et al. (1994) isolated sixteen polys-
during treatment is the major factor
accharides from the mycelium of G. tsngac
limiting the success of chemotherapeutic
three of them showed antitumor activity
management of tumors. Such resistance
against the solid cancer sarcoma 180/mice.
may occur during primary therapy or be
acquired during subsequent treatment (Curt
Sargassum thunbergii have strong antitu-
et al., 1984 and Cairo et al., 1989).
mor effects against transplanted tumors
such as sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich solid
interested to discover naturally occurring
carcinoma (Zhuang et al., 1995).
compounds, which can be used for the
Acebal et al. (1999) isolated agroc-
prevention and treatment of cancer despite
helin as a new alkaloid cytotoxic substance
little understanding about their molecular
by the fermentation of Agrob-acterium sp.
and cellular basis of action Hala et al .
The compound was obtained from the bac-
(2004). Wainwright (1992) reported that
terial cell by solvent extraction and purified

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 4)

Omaima The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 176­ 187
The Protective Role of Septilin Against Gamma Radiation-Induced
Testicular Toxicity in Rats

Omaima Soliman Eissa* and Nehal Aly Moustafa**
*National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority:
** Faculty of Science , Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt


Backgrounds: This study deals with evaluation of the histological and some
histochemical alterations in rat testes induced by whole body gamma irradiation as well as
evaluation of the protective effect of septilin (a herbal preparation) against these effects.
Results : The obtained results indicated that doses of (3 Gy and 6 Gy) gamma radiation
have testicular toxic effects in rats. The histological lesions observed in the testes varied
between vacuolation, swelling, pyknosis and even necrosis in some spermatogenic cells as well
as significant depletion in the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary
spermatocytes and spermatids. The histochemical observations revealed diminution in the
polysaccharides content and increase in the collagen fibres in the testis of irradiated animals.
These effects were mostly perceptive with the high dose of the radiation than with the lower
one. Treatment with septilin (a herbal preparation) for one week followed by gamma radiation
proved that septilin has a protective effect against gamma radiation-induced toxic effects in the
testes of rats; where most of the histological and histochemical changes observed due to
irradiation were minimized to a large extent; however there was no complete protection.
Conclusion: Thus, this study concluded that gamma-irradiation exerts toxic effects in the
testes of rats and pre-treatment with septilin inhibits these toxic effects, which in turn advocate
using such herbal extract as a radioprotector.
Key words: Septilin, -radiation, Histology, Testis, Rats.


Radiation can change the charact-
sensitive to radiation and are killed under
eristics of the cell nucleus and cytoplasm,
the effect of doses less than 3 Gy in the
as mammalian germ cells are very sensitive
Sprague-Dawley rat (Kangasniemi et al.,
to ionizing radiation (Dobson and Felton,
1990), in humans (Rowley et al., 1974), and
1983). Ionized radiation, being one of the
in mice (Mian et al., 1977).
environmental cytotoxic factors, causes
death of the germinal cells and therefore,
compounds that are administered before
sterility (Meistrich, 1993 and Georgieva et
exposure to ionizing radiation to reduce its
al., 2005).
damaging effects, including radiation-
The testis is a main target organ of
induced lethality (Satoh et al., 2003). The
radiation damage; it has been reported that
discovery of radioprotectors for the first
irradiation induces several histopathological
time seemed to be very promising (in
consequences in the organs and tissues,
radiotherapy) and has attracted the interest
including the increase of loose fibrous
of a number of radiobiologists. Although
tissue (Matalka et al., 1994 and Yang et al.,
synthetic radioprotectors such as the
2000). Moreover, ionizing radiation of
aminothiols have yielded the highest
normal tissue results in fibrosis, which is
protective factors; typically they are more
perhaps the most effect of radiation (Geraci
toxic (Rades et al., 2004) than naturally
et al., 1992), in the testis, resulting in
occurring protectors (Weiss and Landauer,
depletion of more advanced spermatogenic
2003). Thereafter different plant extracts
cells (Kangasniemi et al., 1990). The
were tested against radiation effects and
differentiating spermatogonia are very
showed potential radioprotective activities

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 5)

Discussion The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 188 ­ 199

Role of Sodium Selenite in Ameliorating the Oxidative Stress of Gamma
Radiation Exposure.

Hanafi N.
Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and
Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt


Back ground
: This work aims to investigate the role of Sodium Selenite (NaSeO3) in
ameliorating the oxidative stress of gamma radiation exposure. The relation between the
antioxidant status, the histopahological changes and the immunohistological expression of p53
was evaluated.
Materials and methods: Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-30g were used in
this work. Lipid peroxidation and GSH activity levels were estimated in liver and intestinal
tissues. Histopathological observations in addition to the immunohistological expression of p53
were also assayed. Experimental animals treated daily with 0.7µg /ml /kg body weight of
NaSeO3 for two weeks. Some animals were exposed to 5Gy -irradiation and others exposed to
5Gy -irradiation and treated with NaSeO3.
Results: Due to ROS production, 5Gy -radiation induced a highly significant increase in
lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in GSH activity level in liver and intestine tissues.
NaSeO3 supplementation revealed NS change in lipid peroxidation of liver and intestine tissues,
while GSH levels recorded a significant increase as compared to the control group. Combined
treatments with NaSeO3 supplementation and 5Gy -radiation revealed a significant
amelioration in lipid peroxidation and GSH levels as compared to the irradiated groups. The
histopathological observations went parallel to the biochemical records, while p53 expression
was treatments and organs dependent.
Conclusion: NaSeO3 supplementation recorded ameliorated effects against cellular
damage caused by radiation oxidative stress.


Radiation is known to produce
regenerate or develop tissues undergo
various reactive oxygen species (ROS) in
apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation.
biological systems such as superoxide,
p53 plays an essential role in ionizing
hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical
radiation induced apoptosis.
and various types of tissue damage due to
p53 is a tumor-suppressor gene
free radical reactions (Adler et al., 1999).
located on the short arm of chromosome 17
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free
and has an important function in the
radicals induced by partial reduction of
regulation of the cell cycle and in
with cellular
promoting tumorigenesis (Okusa et al.,
macromolecules (i.e., nucleic acids, lipids,
1996 ; Roviello et al., 1999). This gene
proteins, and carbohydrates) (Sies, 1986)
encodes for the p53 protein, which
and induce their damage. In response to
increases the time necessary for DNA
ionizing radiation induced DNA damage,
repair by slowing down the cell cycle at the
cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair are
G1-S transition, and suppresses tumor
activated to protect the genome (Zhou and
growth by causing apoptosis (Lanfrancone
Elledge, 2000 ; Friedberg, 2003).The
et al., 1994; Ryan et al., 2001). Alteration
damage is properly repaired and the
or inactivation of p53 by mutation can
irradiated cells can resume proliferation or
allow a cell to escape from normal into

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 6)

Renal Function Reserve in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Type II Respiratory Failure The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 200 ­ 207

Renal Function Reserve in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with
Type II Respiratory Failure

Manal Mahmoud*, Nesriene El Margoushy**, Hassan Shalby* and Aya M.
Abdel Dayem***.
Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University * Medical and Radiation Research
Dept. ,Nuclear Materials Authority** Chest Dept., Faculty of Medicine,
Ain Shams University***.


Background and objective: increase in renal blood flow in response to certain
stimuli such as dopamine infusion, oral protein load, and amino acid infusion. Reduced
or absent renal functional reserve (RFR) is an early index of renal impairment. Our
work studies the (RFR) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients
with chronic compensated type II respiratory failure.
Methods: Our study included 15 COPD patients with compensated type II respiratory
failure and 5 normal controls. The patient group had mean Pa O2 56.5±6.4 and Pa CO2
56.5±3.2, while in normal controls the mean Pa O2 was 97.4 ± o.3 and Pa CO2 was 42.3 ± 1.2.
Hypoxic patients (Pa O2< or =59mm Hg) allowed to receive low flow oxygen by nasal prongs
to keep their Pa O2 >or = 60 mm Hg and Sa O2 > or = 90 % without rise of PaCO2 within 2
hours before and during the study. The pulsatility index (PI), an index of reno-vascular
resistance (RVR), was measured non invasively by Doppler Ultrasonograghy at baseline and 20
minutes after infusion of dopamine in diuretic dose.
Results: The baseline PI was nearly similar in the control group and in COPD patients
(no significant difference), the PI fell significantly in the control group after dopamine infusion
from 1.03 ± 0.14 to 0.83 ± 0.1(P< 0.05), but increased significantly in COPD patients from 1.02
± 0.12 to1.18 ± 0.13 (P<0.05) after dopamine infusion.
Conclusion: Renal functional reserve is impaired in hypercapnic COPD patients and this
may be a factor in the development of edema frequently seen in these patients.


Renal haemodynamics are affected by
cardiac output (COP) (Compbell and Short,
changes in arterial oxygen (O2) and carbon
1960). It now seems that the pathogenesis
dioxide (CO2). This has been well
of edema in these patients would be
documented in patients with Chronic
correlated with gas exchange impairment
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD),
and in particular with carbon dioxide (CO2)
especially during an acute exacerbation
retention. The gas exchange impairment
(MacNee, 1994). For several years water
induces, in these patients several hormonal
retention and hyponatraemia were typically
abnormalities: renin (Rn), angiotensin II
observed in the final stages of (COPD) and
(AnII), aldosterone (Ald), atrial natriuretic
the onset of edema was a poor prognostic
peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (ADH). The
factor. It was originally hypothesized that
systemic response to hypercapnia has effect
these patients had right ventricular failure
in renal haemodynamic by reducing the
secondary to pulmonary hypertension as a
renal blood flow and, as a result, increasing
consequence of hypoxia induced pulmonary
water and sodium retention with the final
vasoconstriction, however in the absence of
effect of edema and hyponatraemia which
primary cardiac disease, most COPD
observed in the final stage of COPD (Valli
patients had normal or even increased
et al., 2004).

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 7)

Influences of Intermittent Anaerobic Exercise Program on Physical Fitness and Plasma Lactate, Oxidant and Anti-oxidant Status The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 208 ­ 222

Influences of Intermittent Anaerobic Exercise Program on Physical
Fitness and Plasma Lactate, Oxidant and Anti-oxidant Status in
Smokers and Non-smokers Judo Players.

Bushra H. El-Zawahry*; Gamal A. Shawer**
and Mohamed Abd El-Rahman!
Physiology Department Faculty of Medicine (Girls)* and (Boys)** and Physical Education
Department Faculty of Education! Al-Azhar University-Cairo


Background: There is evidence of smoking's negative impact and physical activity's
positive impact on long-term health. However, evidences regarding the association between
smoking and exercise activity and the independent effects of these factors on antioxidant
defense are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between smoking and
the intermittent anaerobic exercise on the physical fitness, oxidant and antioxidant status in Judo
Methods: Twenty male Judo player student from Department of Physical Education Al-
Azhar University were enrolled in the study. They were of 2 groups, Non-smokers (NS) and
smokers (SM). Both groups were subjected to regular Judo training program (2 hours/day, 3
sessions/week for 12 weeks). Also, both groups were subjected to an effort test (running of
submaximal intensity until exhaustion ) and record of the maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max)
using an ergometric bicycle. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) were recorded
and blood samples were taken pre and post-effort test for determination of malondialdehyde
(MDA),total antioxidant capacity (TAC), uric acid (Ua) and lactate (La) in the plasma. Also the
time to exhaustion was recorded during the effort test. These measures were performed pre and
post the training program.
Results: At rest the pre-program data of SM showed significantly higher H.R., and plasma
MDA ,and significantly lower TAC with tendency to increase in MBP and La levels, and
decrease in VO2max, and Ua levels compared to NS. Before program and in response to acute
exercise SM showed significantly higher H.R, MDA and La levels with significantly lower
TAC, Ua and time to exhaustion compared to NS. On the other hand, after the program and in
response to acute exercise, SM showed more pronounced significantly higher HR, MBP, MDA
and La with significantly lower VO2max, time to exhaustion and TAC with insignificant
changes in the Ua compared to the NS that showed significant increase in the Ua levels with
insignificant changes in the MDA, TAC and the La levels in response to acute exercise. In
response to the training program, SM showed significantly higher HR, MBP, MDA and La
levels, with significantly lower VO2max, time to exhaustion, and TAC, and insignificant
changes in the Ua levels compared to NS.
Conclusion: We conclude that cigarette smoking has a significant detrimental effects on
cardiovascular fitness, physical endurance, TAC and lipid peroxidation that all worsened by the
intermittent anaerobic exercise. On the contrary , this type of training is beneficial in
nonsmokers. Also we demonstrated that smoking prevent the beneficial effects of exercise , so
smoking should be avoided in Judo players. Smokers should be given strong encouragement to
stop smoking and to improve physical fitness.


Cigarette smoking is associated
vascular disease (McNamara and Fitz
epidemiologically with a high risk for
Geraled, 2001). The underlying mechan-
various types of chronic illnesses including
isms of smoke-related severe damage to

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 8)

Protective Effect of Urtica Diocia, Natural Honey and Their Mixture Against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 223 ­ 233

Protective Effect of Natural Honey, Urtica diocia and Their Mixture against
Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption.

G.M.F Edrees*, F.G.EL-Said and E.T.Salem.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University.


Background: There is increasing implicating oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of
chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate affect alcohol addiction and role of
some protecting agent.
Material and methods: Forty eight rats (Rattus norvigicus) were divided into 8 groups.
Honey (2.5 g /kg b.w), Urtica dioica (250 mg/kg) and Alcohol orally administered at dose (20%
exceeds by 2.5% weekly).
Results: Ethanol feeding results in increasing serum glucose, total lipids, cholesterol,
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, urea, liver Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase),
pancreas and liver Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC). While a decrease were
noted in serum insulin, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), total Protein, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu,
liver glycogen, pancreas and liver Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD), Glutathione-
S-Transferase (GST), Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase
Conclusion: Administration of honey, urtica or both with alcohol prevent to great extent
the lesions caused by only chronic alcohol administration. Consequently, honey and urtica
administration are useful to minimize the hazardous effects resulting from ethanol abuse.
Key Words: Alcohol- Antioxidant- Honey- Urtica- Oxidative stress.


It is well known that, chronic ethanol
Turkish folk medicine (Yesilada et al.,
administration results in oxidative stress.
Generally, the conditions affecting cardiov-
The aim of the present work is to
ascular, gastro-intestinal and the central
evaluate the role of either honey, Urtica or
nervous systems follow the severity of
both on the oxidative stress caused by
more chronic heavy alcohol use related to
ethanol abuse.
more significant morbidity (Meera et al.,

Material And Methods
The physiological functionality of

foods has received much attention, due to
Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvigicus)
the increasing interest in human health.
(48 rats) weighing about 100-120 g were
Besides carbohydrates which are the major
used in these experiments.
constituents (70­80%), honey contains, in

low amounts, various substances such as
Animals were divided into 8 groups:
organic acids, proteins, amino acids,
1- Rats served as control
vitamins, enzymes, minerals and different
2- Rats treated with honey (2.5 g /kg b.w,
other molecules [pigments, flavonoids,
antibacterial factors, etc.] (White, 1979).
3- Rats treated with Urtica dioica (250
Urtica dioica herbs are used against
mg/kg, orally)
liver insufficiency (Yesilada et al., 1993)
4- Rats treated with honey and Urtica
and are used to treat stomachache in

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 9)

Degree and Determinants of Compliance towards (with) Therapeutic Tasks among Diabetic Patients Attending Health Insurance Out The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 234­ 244

Degree of Compliance towards Therapeutic Tasks among Diabetic
Patients Attending a Health Insurance Setting In Cairo

Ayman, S. Abd-Elhady* and Abd-El-Aziz, A. El-Sadek**
* Public Health and Community Medicine, Assiut Faculty of Medicine,
**Public Health and Community Medicine, Cairo Faculty of Medicine,
Al-Azhar University


Compliance/adherence of diabetic patients towards different
therapeutic aspects (other than drugs) is considered one of the most important elements to
control diabetes mellitus (DM).
Material and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 283 diabetic
patients chosen by systematic random sample among those attending Alf-Maskan Health
Insurance Outpatients clinics in East Cairo, (from April- May 2007), to assess their
compliance behaviors in relation to management of their disease.
Results showed that most of the diabetics (61.1%) had a poor total compliance rate for
the therapeutic tasks of (DM) as a whole, though the larger proportion of the diabetics
(44.9%) had a satisfactory overall knowledge about the important items of DM. As regards
the individual therapeutic tasks, there were also poor compliance rates concerning diet
regimen, regular exercise, cessation of smoking, weight monitoring and care of eye and
foot. Good compliance rate was significantly higher among patients who were males, highly
educated, those of high socioeconomic level, those who had better knowledge about the
disease and those who had suffered from multiple co-morbidities and suffered from DM at
least ten years.
were suggested to improve patient' compliance towards
management tasks of the disease through health education program because increasing the
information of the patients about the disease and its complications through the shared health
care team including the patient himself was valuable.


Diabetic mellitus (DM) is a chronic
blindness in adults, end stage of renal
metabolic systemic disease characterized
failure and non-traumatic amputation
by either a deficiency of insulin or a
(American Diabetic Association, 2003).
decreased ability of the body to use
In Egypt, DM is a major emerging
insulin. DM was classified as either
clinical and public health problem. The
insulin dependent DM (IDDM) or non
total number of diagnosed and non
insulin dependent DM (NIDDM) (Fain,
diagnosed cases of DM increased from
3.2 million in 1995 to 3.8 million in
The prevalence of DM is rising all
2001and expected to be 8.8 million in the
through the world and constitutes a
year 2025 (Shama,1997 and Mohammed,
significant public health problem. In
United States, about 16.5 million people
Diabetes is a chronic disease of
(5.9% of the population) have DM; nearly
lifelong duration, and its management
half of them do not know that they have
requires a fundamental change in the
it. Some 3.2 million of the affected
patient's lifestyle. For example, Diet
persons were 65 years old or more. DM
therapy is essential in the treatment of all
was estimated to be the seventh cause of
forms of DM and patient is instructed to
death in United States with more than
follow the diet permanently even when
180.000 deaths attributed to the disease in
there are no symptoms. Adherence to this
1995. Even when it does not kill, DM can
regimen is essential to reach and maintain
cause major disabilities, for example, DM
ideal body weight, proper nutrition,
is the single greatest leading factor of
control blood glucose and lipid levels and

Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 10)

Biological studies on lipid constituents in blood serum of alloxandiabetic rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 245­ 254

Lipids and oxidative stress in blood serum of alloxan-induced
diabetic rats: possible effects on liver and kidney tissues.

Benrebai Ma, Abidli Na, Benlatreche Cb
a Département des sciences de la nature et de la vie. Université Mentouri,
Constantine 25000, Algeria.
b Laboratoire de biochimie, CHU Benbadis, Constantine 25000, Algeria.


Experimental diabetes mellitus in rats was produced by a single dose of 200 mg of
alloxan /kg body weight given intraperitoneally as an aqueous solution. The diabetic rats
showed abnormal high blood glucose and variable increments in serum total lipids as well
as in other serum lipid constituents particularly the triglycerides.
Certain pathological abnormalities could be detected in both liver and kidney,
particularly when the disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism were more pronounced
in a group of diabetic rats that received no insulin treatment {NIT} or after four weeks of
the onset of diabetes. On the other hand, putting the group of diabetic rats on an insulin
regimen from the start of the diabetic condition resulted in a significant restoration of most
evaluated parameters to values almost similar to those of normal control animals. Diabetic
rats receiving no insulin treatment showed a markedly significant loss in body weight; and
started to gain body weight gradually when put on the proper insulin regimen.


Diabetes mellitus is a disease of
insulin treatment at the onset of the
different etiology, it may arise as a result
diabetic condition, or at the later period
of abnormalities in a number of intrinsic
after alleviating the diabetic state and on
factors as stress; pregnancy or disorder in
its complications was investigated.
cells function in synthesis and secretion

of insulin. Experimentally, the disease
Material and methods
can be induced through the destruction of

cells in the islets of Langerhans by
Albino rats of both sexes three to
diabetogenic agents such as alloxan.
five months of age and weighing 300 to
Much attention is given to studies on
320 gm were used. Animals were left to
biochemical abnormalities that associate
feed ad libitum. Rats were rendered
the disease as well as the proper control
diabetic through the administration of a
of its course, since if the diabetic
single dose of alloxan (200 mg / Kg body
condition is not well controlled a number
weight) injected intrap-eritoneally. Blood
of undesirable dangerous complications
glucose was estimated by the glucose
such as atherosc-lerosis, heart disease,
oxidase method (Trinder, 1969), serum
retinopathy and hepatic histopathological
triglycerides, chole-sterol and phosph-
changes could be frequently encountered
olipids were determined by enzymatic
among diabetic patents. The present study
colorimetric methods (Takayama 1977);
deals with investigations on biochemical
abnormalities in blood glucose, serum
;(Richmond 1973) while serum total
total lipids and their main constituents
lipids were estimated using sulfophosph-
namely: cholesterol, triglycerides, phosp-
ovanilin method reported by Zoellner and
holipids together with follow up of
Kirsch (1962).
pathological changes in both the liver and
Insulin when introduced was injec-
ted subcutaneously using special insulin
Also, the value of introduction of
needles, and the doses adopted were 1.5


Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 11)

ţ˙ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (2007) Vol., 27: 255­ 262

Evaluation of the synergistic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on
some biochemical functions in female albino rats.

Ramadan, F. L.
Radiation Biology Dep., National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT),
Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Egypt.


Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of
biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause
oxidative damage to biological molecules. The present study was carried out to investigate the
synergestic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on certain functional disorders in female
Material and methods: Mature female rats weighing about 120-150g were divided into
four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with danazol at a
daily dose of 1.8 mg/100 g b.wt/day for four weeks., group 3: animals exposed to whole body
gamma irradiation (5 Gy), group 4: animals orally administrated with danazol two weeks before
and two weeks after irradiation.
Results : Blood and liver samples were obtained two week post irradiation. Erythrocyte
counts, haemoglobin concentration (Hb), hamatocrite percentage (Ht) and leucoyte counts
(WBc,s) were determined in blood. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density
lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), glucose as well
as gamma glutamyle transferase (-GT), transmaminase aspartat (AST), alanine (ALT) and
estradiol serum hormone level were assessed. Peroxidative hepatic damage was investigated by
assessing thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and total protein content in liver
tissues. The data obtained revealed that exposure of rats to gamma radiation and / or danazol
treatment or dual treatment caused a significant increase in ALT, AST, glucose, -GT, TC, TG,
LDL-c and liver TABRS. While a significant decrease were recorded in RBc,s Hb, Wbc,s and
On the other hand, serum HDL, estradiol and liver total protein in group treated with
danazol declined compared to control group.
Conclusion: The results are of great importance from the stand point of radiation
protection and drug safety.


Ionizing radiation has been considered
Danazol (DA-Na-Zole) is a synthetic
a source of naturally occurring physical
steroid derived from 17-alpha ethinvltest-
damage to living organisms. At present,
osterone and it is used for curing number of
various man-mad therapeutic diagnostic or
different medical problems (Cai, et al.,
occupational sources of exposure to
1999). These included pain or infertility due
ionizing radiation are of far greater
to endometriosis and hereditary angioe-
importance (Leadon, 1996). Radiation
dema which causes swelling of sexual
interacts with matter by direct and indirect
organs (Momeda, 2001). Its effectiveness is
processes to form ion pairs, some of which
due to a reversible hypoestrogenic and
may be free radicals that lead to molecular
hyperandrogenic state which lead to
damage translated to biochemical damage
atrophy of the ectopic endometrial tissues
that may be then amplified and expressed as
(Tamaya, 2001). Radiation therapy is
biological injury (Abou-Safi et al., 2005).
widely used because these is often no other


Full Paper (vol.27 paper# 12)