I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­2002

Epidemiological Study Of Risky Behaviours And Their Relation With
Mental Ill Health Among Secondary School Students In Cairo

Essam A. El-Moselhy; Morsy A. Ammar; Khaled M. Abd-Allah; Ibrahim A.
Ismail* and Eman S. Abd-Allah**
Departments of Community Medicine, Psychiatry* and Community Health Nursing**
Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, Al-Azhar and Zagazig University

A cross-sectional design was carried out on 827 students from general and technical
secondary schools in Cairo. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky
behaviours among the studied students, to assess their relation with sociodemographic factors
and psychological problems and to explore student's attitude toward these behaviours. The data
were collected by a standardized interviewing form. Different psychological symptoms were
assessed using Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire. The study showed, 54.1% of the students
were having unhealthy diet and tobacco smoking behaviours. Also, all the risky behaviours,
except absence of physical exercise practice and suicide attempt, were more common among
boys. The most important sociodemographic risk factors were; positive family history of risky
behaviours, one parent family and the student's work beside studying (OR=7.11, 4.07 and 3.37,
respectively). The most important reasons for unhealthy diet, carrying weapon and engagement
in casual sex were imitation (55.2%), to feel grown up (47.1%) and peer pressure (39.1%),
respectively. While, the most common psychological problem was hysteria (15.1%) and the
most common neurotic trait was sadness (41.9%). The most important psychological problems
risk factors were obsession and hysteria (OR=5.53 and 4.59, respectively). While, the most
important neurotic traits risk were irritability and sadness (OR=9.53 and 8.05, respectively). No
awareness to the reported risk was present among 96.4% of the students having the risky
behaviours (OR=6.41).

Adolescence is regarded as the time
prevention of most risk factors which cause
transition from childhood to adulthood. It is
disability and diseases. So, investments
the period of intensified preparation for the
which create a conductive environment for
coming role of adulthood and characterized
healthier behaviours are crucial to bring
by the dramatic physical changes of puberty
about the desired improvements in the
and the complex emotional and social
health of nations (WHO, 2001).
adjustments (Hamilton, 1998). Also, it is a
Risk factors are experiences in
period, which is associated with a prolo-
adolescent's life that increase the chances of
nged and confused struggle to attain an
being victimized or developing one or more
independent adult status (El-Nouman et al.,
of behavioural problems. These problems
1999). Egypt has today the largest cohort of
include, unhealthy diet, inadequate physical
adolescents in its history, more than 13
activity, alcohol and other drug abuse,
million boys and girls between age 10 to 19
suicide, criminal behaviour(s) directed
according to the 1996 census (Ibrahim et
towards other persons or properties. The
al. 2000).
more risk factors are present, the greater the
Recent advances in behavioural
chances of behaviour problems to occur
sciences have demonstrated, positive
(Center For Research on Youth At Risk,
changes in life style contribute extensively
1997 and Kann et al., 2000). Risky
to the betterment of physical and
behaviour is often regarded as normal in
psychological well being as well as to the
adolescents. Testing one's own capacities


Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 1)

Default Normal Template The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19:18 ­ 27 June 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­2002

Immunohistochemical Study of Metallothionein Isoform II in
Hyperplastic,Dysplastic and Neoplastic Prostatic Lesions

Sonia L. El Sharkawy; Marwa A. El Shaer; Manal A. Badawi
and Mohamed H. kobeisy*
Pathology Department, National Research Centre;
*Pathology Department, National Institute of Nephrology and Urology.

Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a family of several intracellular, low molecular-weight
proteins with a high affinity to various heavy metals. They are involved in metalloregulatory
functions such as cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. The goals of the present study
were to investigate the expression of MT in hyperplastic, dysplastic and neoplastic prostatic
lesions and to correlate its expression with histologic grade of prostatic carcinoma.
This study was performed on Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 8
patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 6 patients with prostatic intraepithelial
neoplasia (PIN) and 30 patients with prostatic carcinoma (PC) using streptavidin-biotin
technique. The histologic grade was defined and the carcinoma cases were divided into 8 low
grade (Gleason 2-4), 12 moderate grade (Gleason 5-6) and 10 high grade (Gleason 7-10)
Normal and benign prostatic tissues showed patchy MT staining of epithelial cells. All
cases of PIN, 20 out of 30 PC cases (66.7%) showed positive staining for MT. MT expression
significantly increased from low to high grade tumours. The proportion of MT positively stained
cells was directly correlated with histologic grade of PC. The epithelial cells lack uniformity in
staining intensity, but the percentage of strongly positive cells increased with increasing the
histologic grade of PC.
The high incidence of MT expression in PIN in this study suggests that it is associated
with early prostate tumorigenesis. Also MT expression was directly correlated with histologic
grade of PC suggesting that MT may be a useful marker for predicting prognosis of cancer

Key words: Prostate, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, Prostatic
carcinoma, Metallothionein, Immunohistochemistry.

Prostatic carcinoma is the most
Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a
prevalent cancer among men in the western
family of several intracellular, low
world. Preneoplastic lesions, known as
molecular-weight proteins with a high
prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN),
affinity to various heavy metals such as
have been found in men as early as 20 years
zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury and
of age and are commonly observed in men
platinum (Woo et al., 1997). Different
> 50 years of age. PIN lesions are thought
isoforms (0 to IV) of MT have been
to be precursors of invasive cancer prostate
identified. MT-I and II are major isoforms
in which incidence significantly increases
in mammalian tissues. They are believed to
in the sixth decade of life (Sakr et al., 1993;
serve as important role in the homeostasis
Green et al., 2001 and Calvo et al., 2003).
of essential metals such as Zn and Cu
Aging, genetic factors, environmental
during growth and development, as well as
carcinogens, and steroid hormone levels are
in the detoxification of heavy metals such
factors that have been associated with the
as Cd and Hg, rendering the MTs important
development of prostatic cancer (Wild et
mediators and attenuators of heavy
al., 2001).

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 2)

Default Normal Template The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 28-33 June 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­2002

Single Treatment Approaches to Benign paroxysmal Positional
Vertigo, Is It Enough?

Ahmed Abdel-Bassit* , Mohammed Elsaid ** and
Mohammed El-Beltagy*.

*Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, AlAzhar Faculty Of Medicine (Boys); and
**Ahmed Maher Educational Hospital.


Bening paroxysmal positional vertigo (B.P.P.V) is one of the most common vestibular
disorders.During the last years, it has been attributed to cupulolithiasis or canalithiasis of the
posterior semicircular canal.This randomized study was done to determine the effectiveness of
two different physical therapy approaches and to determine if a single treatment approaches is
enough.In this prospective study 80 patients received either a single treatment based on the
hypothesis that the vertigo and nystagmus of (B.P.P.V) are due to debris adhering to the cupula
of posterior semicircular canal (cupulolithiasis), Semont maneuver, or a single treatment based
on the hypothesis that the debris is free floating in the long arm of the posterior semicircular
canal (canalithiasis), Epley maneuver.Treatment outcome was classified as asymptomatic,
improved and no change.
Analysis of the results of this study revealed that at the end of the first session , out of 80
patients, 60(75%) were asymptomatic ; 14(18%) improved ;6(7%) showed no change. Follow­
up showed that 8 patients developed recurrence. After a second session to 22 patients (8
recurrences, 10 improved, 4 had no change) ,17 became asymptomatic.This means that at the
end of the seconed session ,69 (86%) of 80 patients became asymptomatic ; 9(11%) of 80
patients improved ; 2(3%) of 80 patients showed no change.
In conclusion , this study shows that 1) The success rate of Semont's maneuver was up to
80%, so it is much better than Epley maneuver 70% after the first session. 2)Recurrent cases are
best treated with second session.

semicircular canal in two patients with a

history of BPPV. The increased density of
Among vertiginous disorders, benign
the cupula relative to the endolymph results
paroxysmal positional vertigo (B.P.P.V) is
in an inappropriate deflection of the cupula
common. Schuknecht (1974) has proposed
of the posterior canal when the head is
cupulolithiasis or canalithiasis as the
moved while the posterior canal is in a
principal mechanism. Calcium carbonate
plane parallel to the pull of gravity .Leading
crystals from saccular or utricular otoconia
to vertigo, nystagmus, and nausea.
impinge on the cupula of the posterior
Dislodging the debris from the cupula and
semicircular canal ,the most dependant
expelling it into the vestibule should relieve
portion of the vestibular labyrinth.
the symptoms.
The first hypothesis, cupulolithiasis,
The second hypothesis, canalithiasis,
proposes that degenerative debris (possibly
(Hall et al.,1979 and Epley,1992) suggests
fragments of otoconia from the utricle)
that the degenerative debris does not adhere
adhere to the surface of the cupula of the
to the cupula of the posterior canal but
posterior semicircular canal facing the
rather is free floating in the endolymph of
utricle, making its gravity sensitive. This
the long arm of the canal. When the head is
mechanism was first suggested by
moved into the provoking position, the
Schuknecht who found basophilic-staining
debris sinks into the most dependent
deposits on the cupola of the posterior
position in the canal, causing the

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 3)

Default Normal Template The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 34 ­ 47 June 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­2002

Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in
diabetic albino rats

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud **

, Mervat Abdel-Rahman***,
and Anwaar A. Kahwash*
* Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University (Girls)
** Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azher University
**Clinical Pathology Lab., Student Hospital, Cairo University, Giza.


The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella
sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha) and
their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats
were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with
alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt). The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a
mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt), the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt), the fifth
was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt ), the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida
(0.1g/100g b.wt), the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt) and
the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt ). After thirty days of
treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any
additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present.
The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01) in serum transaminases
(aspartate ( AST ) and alanine (ALT)), alkaline phosphates (ALP), total bilirubin, urea and
creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01) in serum total protein , albumin and
globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all
plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when
compared with control one .
It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective
effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.

Key words: Liver functions, kidney functions, diabetic Albino rats.


One of the most important clinical
considered one of causative factors of liver
features of diabetes is its association with
disorders (Evans, 2001).
chronic tissue complications (Wiliams and
The present study was a trial to clarify
Pick. Up, 2000). Liver tissue one of these
if the mixture of Nigella sativa, Aloe vera,
tissues damaged by diabetes causing cell
Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw
necrosis (Boorman et al.,1990).
and Commiphora myrrha and each plant
About 170 phytoconstituents isolated
alone have liver-protective activity or
from 110 plants belonging to 55 families
causative factors of liver disorders. And
were stated to possess liver-protective
their effect on kidney function.
activity; about 600 commercial herbal

formulations with claimed hepatoprotictive
Material and Methods
activity are being marketed world-wide.

Otherwise, some plant materials (such as
Eighty mature male albino rats
those containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids)
(weight 120
± 20 gm). Rats divided into

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 4)

Lateral Ulnar Collateral ligament Lesions in patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: MR Imaging Findings The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 48 ­ 57 June 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­2002

Lateral Ulnar Collateral ligament Lesions in patients with Lateral
Epicondylitis: MR Imaging Findings.

Mohamed Farouk Aggag*and Ragy Tantawi Amin**

*Radio diagnosis Department, El Azhar University, ** Rheumatology
and Rehabilitation Department, El Azhar University


Objective. The aim of this work was to determine if a correlation between lateral epicondylitis
and abnormalities of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament is found on MR imaging.

Subjects and Methods. The Study group comprised 50 consecutive patients who were referred
for MR imaging to rule out lateral epicondylitis. On MR imaging "lateral epicondylitis" was
defined as increased signal intensity of the extensor tendons close to their insertion on the lateral
epicondylitis. The severity of the lateral epicondylitis was graded as mild, moderate or severe.
The origin of the lateral colleteral ligamantous complex was characterized and the lateral ulnar
collateral ligament was normal, thickened, partially torn or torn. Sixteen patients underwent
elbow surgery after the initial MR examination.

Results. In 15 patients, MR imaging revealed characteristics of mild lateral epicondylitis. In 13
of these patients the lateral ulnar collateral ligament was normal. One patient showed a
thickened lateral ulnar collateral ligament and one patient had a thinned ligament.
In 17 patients, MR imaging showed features of moderate lateral epicondylitis. One patient had a
thinned ligament feature of moderate lateral epicondylitis. In 14 of these patients, the lateral
ulnar collateral ligament was thickened and in the remaining three patients, the ligament was
All eighteen patients with severe lateral epicondylitis showed abnormalities of the lateral ulnar
collateral ligament on MR imaging.
In two of these patients, the lateral ulnar collateral ligament was thickened. In Six patients we
saw a partial tear, and in the remaining ten patients we saw a complete tear of the ligament.

Conclusion. In our study, MR imaging features of lateral epicondylitis were offen associated
with thickening and tear of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament and the frequency and severity of
lateral ulnar collatered ligament lesions were directly related the severity (degree) of lateral


trauma, the origin of the common extensor
known as (tennis elbow), is the most
tendon is thinned and partially avulsed at its
common cause of discomfort or disability
insertion on the lateral epicondyle. In
of the elbow joint (Field L. D and Altchek
response to this partial avulsion, a scar
DW; 1995).
tissue forms that is then susceptible to
further tearing with repetitive trauma
results from occupational or sports
(Potter H.G. et al; 1995).
activities and activities of daily living that
Epicondylitis, is typically diagnosed
produce varus stress (Plancher KD et al;
clinically and treated conservatively and
1996). With over use or repetitive micro
imaging is not needed initially. When

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 5)

Effect Of Diazepam On The Prenatal Development Of Neuropil Of The Purkinje Cell Layer Of The Cerebellar Cortex Of The Rats Emb The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 58 ­ 66 June 2005

1687- 2002

Effect Of Diazepam On The Prenatal Development Of Neuropil Of
The Purkinje Cell Layer Of The Cerebellar Cortex Of The Rats
Embryo (Electron Microscope Study)

Lotfy Sayed**, Mamdoh Ghalli**, Essam El-Din Abdelhady*
Ola Abdelhamid*** and Reda Awadalla*
Anatomy Department*, Histology Department** Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University
Anatomy Department*** Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Girls)

Diazepam is one of the most widely used sedative hypnotic agents, and many women take
this drug during pregnancy.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diazepam on the development of
the neuropil of the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex.
Twenty female pregnant rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups, the
first group (5 rats) was used as control group and the second group (15 rats) were given 10
mg/kg/day of diazepam orally and sacrificed at 15th, 20th, 25th days of pregnancy. It was difficult
to differentiate between the dendrites and the axonal knobs at 15th day of pregnancy. As age
advanced, the dendrites were swollen with absence of cytoplasmic organelles or contained few
free ribosomes and immature mitochondria. The observed axonal knobs contained ill-defined
synaptic vesicles. Immature axo-dendritic synapses were recognized on the 15th and 20th days of
pregnancy, while on the 25th days of pregnancy symmetrical axo-dendritic synapses were
recognized. From this study, it appears that the exposure to diazepam causes marked changes on
prenatal development of neuropil of the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex.

Aim of the work
The aim of the work was to study the effects of diazepam on the development of the
neuropil of Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex.

Diazepam is the most important
of neuron types and a stereotyped pattern of
sedative hypnotic drug used, it is given
orally, intramuscular and intravenous, and it
characterized by its structural uniformity in
is absorbed very rapidly into the blood
the whole extension of the cortical mantle
following oral or intramuscular adminis-
(Cormack 2001). The cerebellar cortex is
tration and concentrated in the nervous
composed of three layers; the molecular
tissues. The therapeutic dose is 5 mg twice
cell layer, Purkinje cell layer and granular
daily (Katzyng 2001). It is metabolized in
layer (Gartner and Hiatt 2000)
the liver and excreted via the kidneys
The germinal zone, which surrounds
(Chouinard G. 1999 and Avallone et al
the 4th ventricle, gives rise to the cells of
2002).It causes sedation and hypnosis, it is
Purkinje, Golgi, and the cerebellar glia
also used in anesthesia, convulsion and
(William 1995). The other neurons of the
relaxation of the muscles (Walsh and
cerebellar cortex such as the star cells,
Schweitzer 1999 and Musavi & Kakkar
basket cells, granular cells, and other glial
elements are derived from the original
Recently, the morphology of the
germinal cells in the rhombic heights
cerebellar neurons and their intercortical
(Altman, 1972).
connections is being intensively studied.
Purkinje cell layer: the Purkinje cells
The cerebellar cortex has a limited number
are large Golgi type I neurons. They are

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 6)

Reproductive Effects Of human Interferon-Alpha-2b Administration on Male Albino Mice Testes The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 67 ­ 78 June 2005

1687- 2002

Reproductive Effects Of human Interferon-Alpha-2b Administration
on Male Albino Mice Testes.An Experimental Study.

Nabil Abdel Mageed *, Ehsan Hassan **, Azza Hegazy **, Nagwa M. Abdel
Wahab *** and Sohir A. Ismail ****
Dermatology Department *, Pathology Department**, Public Health & Biostatistics
Department **** and Internal Medicine Department****
National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI)

: Recombinant human interferon alpha (rh-IFN-) is used therapeutically in
malignant disorders and chronic hepatitis. The phenotypic effects of this drug at the structural
levels on testicular tissue were hardly ever addressed. Hence, this work was designed in adult
male albino mice to study the phenotypic effects of rh-INF--2b on testicular tissue as well as
assessing its effects on serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels.
Objective: This research was planned to through light on the effects of interferon-alpha-
2b (IFN-alpha-2b) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis of the adult male albino
Design: Experimental study.
Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI). The
study was conducted from November (2004) to February (2005).

Materials and methods: Thirty sexually mature male mice were divided into three groups
(10 mice in each group), namely: the control, the experimental and the recovery groups. Mice in
the experimental and recovery groups were administered recombinant human interferon alpha
intraperitoneally at a dose of 3000 U / mouse weekly for 12 weeks in a volume of 1.0-microliter
isotonic normal saline, then animals in the recovery group were left to recover for a further
period of two months. At the end of the experiment, serum concentrations of gonadotropins and
testosterone were measured and then all animals were then sacrificed to study
histopathologically the possible effects of interferon on the testicular tissue.
rh-IFN--2b induced remarkable decline in the serum levels of both follicle
stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in mice of the experimental group
compared to the corresponding control and mice of recovery group. At the same time,
testosterone was moderately increased in the experimental group, and then returned to its
normal levels within 2 months after cessation of treatment. Histopathologically, in the
experimental group, there were focal thickening of the basement membrane, degenerative
changes and clumping of the germinal epithelial cells in the center of seminiferous tubules,
partial desquamation of the germinal epithelium from basement membrane, reduction in the
germ cell height, partial arrest of maturation and increased number of Sertoli cells. Increased
number of Leydig's cells and hypervascularity were detected in the interstitial spaces. In the
recovery group, there was lessening of the germ cell hypoplasia manifested by restoration of
spermatogenic cells and accidental disruption in the basement membrane. Most of the
spermatogenic and Sertoli cells restored their polarity, height and maturation.
Conclusion: our results suggest that rh-INF--2b temporally affects the hypothalamic-
pituitary-testicular axis (HPT), both centrally and peripherally (at the testicular level), through
the lessening of FSH, LH, raise of testosterone serum levels and direct phenotypic effect on the
testicular tissue.


Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 7)

ž’ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 79 ­ 91 June 2005

1687- 2002

Effect of lupine (Lupinus termis) seeds or their water extract
on alloxan diabetic rats

H. A. Hassan and M. M. El-Komy
Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem. Much of the increased
mortality and morbidity seen in diabetic patients is the result of various complications. Free
radicals play an important role in the cause of complications of diabetes mellitus such as
retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Many
secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the
effects of oxidative stress in diabetic patient. Thus the present study tries to evaluate the role of
different preparations from Lupinus termis as a hypoglycemic agent. Alloxan diabetic rats were
orally treated with either 5 ml/Kg b.wt/day aqueous lupine seeds extract or 20% w/w in diet
edible boiled lupine seeds powder or 20% w/w dry lupine seeds powder for 30 days. The results
recorded high levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol as well as
low levels of total protein, HDL-cholesterol, liver glycogen and serum insulin in diabetic rats.
Phospholipids content was increased in the serum but decreased in the liver and pancreas of
diabetic rats. In addition, the results confirmed that the alloxan diabetic rats were subjected to
oxidative stress as indicated by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehide levels)
present in the liver and pancreas and significantly alter activities of some scavenging enzymes
(low glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and
catalase). On the other hand, after administration of any one of the used preparations of lupine
seeds, the diabetic rats revealed an improvement on various metabolic abnormalities as well as
oxidative stress recorded with diabetes but the best improvement occurred in the animal group
treated with dry seeds powder. These results give a good evidence for the amelioration effect of
lupine against the alloxan diabetic effects.

Key words:
Antidiabetic plants - seed extract - metabolic abnormalities ­ free radical - alloxan
diabetic rats.


Diabetes is one of the most common
of ROS but also affects antioxidant
diseases especially in tropical area and the
reactions catalyzed by ROS scavenging
third world. Diabetes mellitus is a multifa-
enzymes (Uchimura et al., 1999). Diabetes
ctorial disease, which is characterized by
mellitus has also been associated with an
hyperglycemia and lipoprotein abnorm-
increased risk for developing premature
alities (Scoppola et al., 2001). These trails
atherosclerosis due to increase in
triglycerides and low- density lipoprotein
membranes which results in elevated
levels and decrease in high-density
production of reactive oxygen species
lipoprotein level (Bierman, 1992). All
(ROS)(Wolff et al., 1991). This generation
organisms possess antioxidant enzymes
of oxygen-free-radicals during cellular
[superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase
metabolism, and by certain environmental
factors, including lifestyle, appears to play
(GSHPx)] responsible for scavening ROS.
a critical role in the pathogenesis of
A defect in ROS scavenging enzyme
system has been reported in diabetes
Hyperglycemia, the main symptom of
mellitus (Kesavulu et al., 2000 and Jung et
diabetes, not only increases the production
al., 2004).

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 8)

The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 92 ­ 100 June 2005

1687- 2002

The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat.

Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin*,
Atef Ibrahim* and Ola Abdelhamid**

*Departments of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine,
ALAZHAR University ** Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine,
ALAZHAR University (Girls)

The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of
radiation on various organs of the human body.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C)
against the effect of radiation on rat testes.
Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first
group (G.1) was exposed to 415 r (G.1') or 622 r (G.1") using x-ray source for one minute per
day for one week. The second group (G.2) was exposed to 415 r (G.2') or 622 r (G.2") using x-
ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9
mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3) was a control
The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some
layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells
and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1') .While for
(G.1") there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction
of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and
the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2) showed evidence of
almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2"
It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard
against its hazards.

There is a considerable interest these
days in benevolent chemicals called "free
produce their scavenger effect by reducing
radical scavengers." How well they work is
the plasma level of lipid peroxidase and the
yet to be determined, but population studies
number of dividing cells, or the micro
strongly suggest that certain diets are better
nucleated cells , also the necrotic or
than others, and that those diets are full of
apoptotic effect of the free radicals ( Crott
free radical scavengers, otherwise known as
and Fenech,1999 ).
antioxidants. The recommended ingredients
Radio and television signals, radar,
are beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and
heat, infrared, ultraviolet, sunlight, starlight,
selenium, all available as commercial
cosmic rays, gamma rays, and x rays all
preparations. Beta-carotene is yellow-
belong to the electromagnetic spectrum and
orange and is present in yellow and orange
differ only in their relative energy,
fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C can be
frequency, and wavelength.The frequencies
found naturally in citrus fruits. Vitamin C is
above visible light have enough energy to
considered as one of the antioxidants used
penetrate and cause damage to living tissue
today ,the antioxidants are substances
.The energy of electromagnetic radiation is
widely used due to their effect to confront
a direct function of its frequency. The high
the free radicals .(Bast et al. 1991). Vitamin
energy, high frequency waves, which can
C. is one of biological or naturally available
penetrate solids to various depths, cause

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 9)

Effect of Bifendate (DDB) On Normal and Diseased Liver of Adult Male Albino Rats: An Experimental Study The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19:101 ­ 110 June 2005

1687- 2002

Effect of Bifendate (DDB) On Normal and Diseased Liver of Adult
Male Albino Rats: An Experimental Study.

Ehsan H.Hassan *, Nabil Abdel Mageed ** Nagwa AbdelWahaab ***,
Hoda Aref **** and Sameh Seif *****
Pathology Department*, Dermatology Department **, Biostatistics and Public Health
Department ***, Biochemistry department****, Int. Medicine department*****
National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI)


Background: Fructus Schizandrae Sinensis bail, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been
shown to lower the elevated serum level of liver enzymes of patients suffering from chronic
active hepatitis. A synthetic derivative compound of Schisandrian, Dimethyl Diphenyl
Bicarboxylate (DDB) is now used widely in clinical fields as a hepatoprotective drug. Thus it is
important to know whether DDB has a beneficial effect on damaged liver or not.

To evaluate the protective effect of DDB on induced liver tissue injury in rats.

Design: Experimental study.

: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute. The study was
conducted from October (2004) to February (2005).

Materials and methods:
120 male albino rats aged 6-8 weeks, weight 150-200g were grouped
in six groups, 20 rats per group. Group 1 received food and water only, group 2 received food,
water and DDB intragastric 6mg/kg daily for 12 weeks, group 3 received 20% ethanol instead of
water, group 4 received 20% ethanol instead of water plus DDB, group 5 received
thioacetamide (TAA) in a dose of 200mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal injection, group 6
received thioacetamide plus DDB at the same dose of the above group. At the end of the trial,
blood samples were taken from all groups for biochemical analysis. Liver tissue excised from
each rat was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with Hematoxylin
and Eosin, as well as Masson's trichome stain, for evaluation of hepatic injury and/or fibrosis.

Statistical elevation of serum hepatic enzymes was noticed in rats received alcohol,
Thioacetamide and alcohol + DDB (groups III, V and IV respectively) compared to the
corresponding control (P= 0.000). On the other hand, administration of DDB to TAA treated
group (group VI) induced significant improvement of liver function tests compared to other
groups (P= 0.000). Histopathologically, the control livers showed normal lobular architecture
without any pathological changes. Liver sections of animals administered alcohol, TAA
respectively showed chronic inflammatory reaction, fat accumulation, hepatic parenchymal
necrosis and/or hepatic fibrosis. Administration of DDB resulted in improvement of the
pathological changes induced by TAA (group VI), but not that induced by alcohol (group IV).

Our results revealed that DDB has antitoxic effect against TAA and ameliorates
the dangerous effect on the liver parenchyma, while it has no beneficial effect on alcoholic liver


Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 10)

Default Normal Template The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 111- 122 June 2005
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 ­2002

Effect Of Fractionated And Single Doses Gamma Irradiation
On Certain Mammalian Organs

Nabila A. R. Abdel Motaal* and Azza Abdel Maguid**
*Radiation Biology and ** Radiation Health Research Departments, National Centre
for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work aims to study the effect of fractionated and single dose whole body
gamma irradiation on the liver, spleen and intestine of albino rats.
30 Male albino rats (100-120g) were used as experimental animals, they were divided
into three groups: The first group consists of 10 rats served as control group (non irradiated),
the second group (10 rats) were subjected to a single dose of irradiation (5Gy) and the third
group (10 rats) were subjected to gamma of irradiation (5Gy) delivered at 5 successive
exposures daily.
Histological results showed serious histopathological disorders in the liver, spleen and
intestine after exposure to the single dose of gamma irradiation (5Gy), manifested by
inflammation and infiltration with mononuclear cells, haemorrhage, dilatation, congestion and
widening of blood vessels and necrosis of cells with pyknotic nuclei.
Exposure of rats to fractionated doses of whole body gamma irradiation (1Gy) up to
5Gy resulted in less severe histopathological disorders in liver, spleen and small intestine
This indicates the beneficial use of fractionated doses in planning for radiotherapy in
cancer patients, thus reducing the serious histopathological changes of radiation on the human

Life on earth has evolved in the
The biological effect of radiation
presence of ionizing radiation from several
correlates with the given doses (Fowler,
sources. In addition to natural background
1994). The most important target in living
radiation, humans are exposed from man
cells is DNA. Ionizing radiation may
made sources. The largest component of
directly damage DNA (direct target
man-made background radiation relates to
theory), but more often it indirectly
damages DNA by inducing the formation
diagnosis and treatment (Kissan and
of free radicals, particularly those that
Anderson 1985).
form the radiolysis of water (indirect target
Exposure to radiation causes injury
theory). Other cell molecules that may also
to blood vessels provoking anoxia of
be direct or indirect targets of radiant
tissues with degeneration and necrosis
injury include lipids in cell membranes
(Jirtle et al., 1990)

and proteins that function as critical
Many of the damaging effects of
enzymes. The transfer of energy to a target
ionizing radiations are mediated by free
atom or molecules from the incident
radicals. Superoxide (O) and hydroxyl
source of radiant energy occurs within
radical (OH) attack the polyunsaturated
micro fractions of a second, yet its
fatty acids of cell membrane phospholipids
biological effect may become apparent for
resulting in severe damage to cellular
minutes or, if the effect is on DNA, even
membrane organelles and their associated
decades (Kumar et al., 2003).
enzymes (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1989).
The objective of this work was to
The cell membrane permeability is distu-
evaluate the ameliorative effect of the
rbed following irradiation as exhibited by
single or fractionated irradiation doses
changes in tissue ionic contents of Na and
when planning a radiotherapy programme
K (Hassan and Osman, 1996)
for medical practice aiming to reduce the

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 11)

ž’ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 123 ­ 137 June 2005

1687- 2002

The Possible Ameliorative Effect Of Dimethyl Dicarboxylate
Biphenyl (DDB) Against Mancozeb­Induced Testicular Toxicity
In Rats

Manar Effat Selim
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University


Mancozeb, an organocarbamate fungicide, has been widely used for several
decades. Despite the wide scope of exposure to this compound, up till now, there is a
scarcity in published studies on the toxicity of mancozeb and its impacts on cell structure
and functions. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the possible
counteracting effect of dimethyl dicarboxylate biphenyl (DDB) in reducing the hazards
caused by mancozeb in the testies. The effects of mancozeb given separately or
simultaneously with DDB on rat testis were studied histologically and ultra structurally.
Twenty-one male albino rats were divided into three groups, 7 rats each. The first group
was given orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and served as control. Animals of the second
group were given mancozeb orally at a dose level of 500 mg/kg b.wt for 15 consecutive
days. Animals of the third group received the same dose of mancozeb as in the second
group and simultaneously given DDB (50 mg/kg b.wt) through the same route of
administration. Mancozeb treatment induced cellular damage manifested as exfoliation
and destruction of the spermatogenic lineage. Destructed spermatids and Leydig cells
were also pronounced. The ultra structural observations revealed marked cytoplasmic
vacuolation in Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. Some cytoplasmic organelles of the
spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were degenerated. Moreover, destructed
spermatids were pronounced in most of the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial cells
appeared devoid of lipid droplets and the mitochondria appeared with disintegrated
Administration of DDB simultaneously with mancozeb ameliorated most of the
testicular tissue damage. This was reflected as restoration of the normal appearance of the
spermatogenic lineage. Numerous spermatids were demonstrated in the lumens of the
seminiferous tubules, most of them showed similar structure to those of the control group.
In conclusion, it is possible to suggest that DDB might have ameliorated and amended the
abnormalities caused by mancozeb.


a large number of people are potentially
fungicide, has been widely used for several
exposed to this fungicide including workers
decades. Nevertheless, up till now, the
engaged in the production and use of this
hazards caused by this fungicide on the cell
compound, people living in agricultural
structure and function have not been
areas where the compound is sprayed and
completely investigated. It is expected that
those consuming polluted products.

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 12)

Comparison between the effect of the thiazolidinedione-rosiglitazone-& the sulphonylurea -gliclazide- and their combination on The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 138 ­ 155 June 2005

1687- 2002
Comparison between the effect of the thiazolidinedione-rosiglitazone-
& the sulphonylurea -gliclazide- and their combination on the liver of
streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

Mohamed M. Ewais1, Magda M Naim2, Soha S. Essawy1and
Amani A. El-Baz3
Departments of Pharmacology1, Histology 2 and Physiology 3,
Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University.


This study was conducted to compare between the possible effects of rosiglitazone "A new
oral antidiabetic drug with selective PPAR-gamma agonistic effect" in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg
BW and gliclazide " An oral antidiabetic sulphonylurea" in a dose of 10 mg/kg BW either used
alone or in combination, for 6 weeks on the liver, serum glucose and lipid profile in
streptozotocin diabetic rats.
Thirty rats were randomized into 5 groups (n=6). Group I; the control group was given
saline orally daily for 6 weeks. Group II; the streptozotocin induced diabetic group. Group III
received rosiglitazone, while group IV received gliclazide and group V received both drugs.
The results of the present study revealed that streptozotocin significantly (P< 0.05) elevated
serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in rats compared to the controls. The insulin
sensitizer "rosiglitazone" either alone or combined with gliclazide decreased serum glucose
significantly (P< 0.05) compared to the diabetic group. Gliclazide alone also had the same
effect. Rosiglitazone alone decreased serum cholesterol and AST and in combination with
gliclazide decreased serum ALT significantly (P< 0.05) compared to the diabetic group.
For histopathological study, liver tissue was prepared for both histological (H&E, PAS &
Masson's trichrome) and immunohistochemical (alpha 1 antitrypsin expression) techniques.
Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to assess the degree of hepatic damage.
According to certain criteria, H&E stained sections were quantitatively examined to assess the
degree of hepatocyte affection, beside other quantitative measurements (optical density & color
area percentage) using the image analyser. Obtained results revealed that streptozotocin caused
severe affection in 6% of hepatocytes, mild affection in 2% and moderate affection in 41%. The
drug also resulted in significant increase in PAS stained glycogen granules in hepatocytes as
well as collagen in portal tracts. Immunostaining of alpha 1 antitrypsin revealed increased
expression in the lining of blood sinusoids including Kupffer cell cytoplasm and in the area
around the central vein. Groups III, IV and V which were under the effect of rosiglitazone,
gliclazide or both respectively, showed hepatocyte damage similar to that of diabetic control
group; however the degree of that damage was only statistically significantly increased in case
of group III.
When compared to diabetic control group, these groups (III, IV and V) showed no
significant difference in both optical density of PAS positive reaction or mean color area
percentage of collagen; however the mean optical density of immunostaining decreased
This indicated that rosiglitazone alone or when used concomitantly with gliclazide, in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in improvement of their metabolic control, yet the
potential of hepatotoxicity was still to be considered.


Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 13)

Interaction of sodium nitrite and sunset yellow and its effect on some biochemical parameters in young albino rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19:156 ­ 167 June 2005

1687- 2002

Interaction of sodium nitrite and sunset yellow and its effect on some
biochemical parameters in young albino rats

Eman G.E. Helal* and Mervat Abdel-Rahman**
* Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls)
** Clinical Pathology Lab., Student Hospital, Cairo University, Giza


Children usually eat and drink food containing both food preservatives, as sodium nitrite
and food colourants, as sunset yellow (S.S.Y) at the same time. The mixture of the two agents at
the limited dose of each was found to be lethal. 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days.
Animals were divided into three groups. The first served as a control, while the second was
orally administered a mixture of sodium nitrite (NaNO3) and S.S.Y. The third received garlic in
addition to the above mixture. Half of the animals from each group were decapitated after 30
days of treatment, while the other half was left for another 15 days for recovery. Investigation of
the mixture of sod.nitrite and S.S.Y significantly decreases protein and albumin. Significant
increases were observed in cholesterol, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline
phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). No change
was observed for Total protein, Triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine
aminotransferase(ALT) and acid phosphatase (AcP) recorded.
A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most biochemical parameters was
observed after the recovery period or when garlic was administered. This draws attention to the
dangers of interactions of such preservatives and colourants. The present study showed that
even the permitted doses of colourants and food preservatives may be harmful. And illustrate
that usage of garlic may ameliorate some of the expected hazards of food additions.

Key Words:
Garlic, NaNO3, sunset yellow


Every food designer knows that
Sodium nitrite is an inorganic salt used in
consumers judge a product not only on its
the manufacture of dyes and as a food
flavour, but on its appearance as well. One
additive that has been used for decades to
important class of ingredients exists solely
preserve meats (HMSO, 1987), poultry and
to enhance the appearance of what we eat:
fish. More than 85 percent of a person's
food colours (Lindsay, 1985).
daily intake of nitrite comes from nitrate in
Sunset Yellow, a liquid crystal
green, leafy vegetables or root vegetables,
aggregated dye, meaning that the molecules
such as lettuce, spinach and carrots, and
tend to aggregate at sufficiently high
some drinking water. At most, about 5
concentration. It is used as a food colouring
percent of a person's daily intake comes
in foods including cereals and desserts. This
from cured meats. Some of the concern
chemical is also a colouring agent for dairy
about nitrite grew out of the fact that
products, snack foods, jams, canned food,
nitrites could potentially react in the
in gelatin, frozen desserts, carbonated
stomach with certain chemicals that are
beverages, dry drink powders, confecti-
released during protein digestion to produce
onary products, bakery products, puddings,
a chemical known as N-nitrosamines. N-
maraschino cherries, pet food and sausages
nitrosamines has been associated with
(U.S. Environmental protection Agency,
cancer in animals. There also were a
number of studies during the 1970s that

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 14)

Ultrastructure Study on the Effect of Alternating Magnetic Field on Mice Liver The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19:168 ­ 178 June 2005

1687- 2002

Ultrastructure Study on the Effect of Alternating Magnetic
Field on Mice Liver

Neveen Hussein Mahmoud
Department of Zoology-Faculty of Science, Alazhar University


Recently, it is recorded that electromagnetic field (E.M.F) is considered dramatically as
one of the most dangerous environmental pollutant especially among the developing
industrialization societies. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of continuous daily
exposure to alternating magnetic field (AC/E.M.F). Adult male mice were classified into three
groups. The first group was kept as control. The second group received (50 HZ/AC of 2mT)
daily for 20 days. The third group received the same dose and kept for another one month (post
treatment) without exposure. Histological and Ultrastuctural studies were carried out on liver
tissue using light and electron microscopes.
The microscopic examination of the liver specimen of the second group revealed
degenerated liver tissue when compared to control group, shrinking rough endoplasmic
reticulum, swollen degenerated mitochondria and pyknotic nuclei. Examination of the liver
specimens of the third group showed more severe degeneration in comparison with the second
group and no sign of recovery was observed.


Advances in medical instrumentation
spermatogenesis and embryogenesis in
and concerns about exposure to E.M.F
mice exposed to 1.5 T for 30 min.
have stimulated research on its effect on
A recent study in Canada (Rivard and
Deadman,2003) reported a relative risk of
(Tenforde,1979; Maret, 1986;and Simon,
childhood leukaemia following maternal
occupational exposure during pregnancy to
Many organisms are also known to
posses inclusions of magnetic material,
Mikaelian et al (1989), Gorczynska
(Frankel,1991). Alternating magnetic field
and Wegrzynowicz,(1991) and Radi et al.,
is produced by alternating currents (AC)
(1999) found that the exposure of male
having a frequency range from zero to 300
mice to AC/EMF of 10 mT revealed focal
hertz (HZ). The fundamental quantities
areas of degenerated hepatocytes with
describing a magnetic field are the field
vacuolated cytoplasm and various changes
strength (ampere/meter, A/m) and the
in the cyto-plasmic organelles. Nuclei
magnetic flux density Tesla,T A/m=1.26
showed irregular outlines, clumping and
µT (Anderson and kaune,1988.)
condensation of heterochromatin as well as
Experimental studies on animals are
shrinkage and pyknosis.
important with reservations as to the
Mitochondria appeared swollen with
conclusions that might be drawn with
disrupted membranes.
respect to possible effect of E.M.F. on
Mohamed et al.,(2001) investigated
human health. Histological studies can
the effect of longterm exposure to low
provide an understanding of possible
frequency (E.M.F.) on mice brain (50 HZ )
mechanisms of biological interaction
for 50 days. They found that the
(ICNIRR,2004). Documents of NRPB,
ultrastucture examination of the cerebral
cortical layers showed wider spaces

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 15)

Study ON diabetic RATS- Hematological The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 179 ­ 188 June 2005

1687- 2002

Some Hematological-Studice ON Diabetic RATS
treated with certain hypoglycemic plants

Eman G.E. Helal*, Abeer S.M. Gawish**,A. Kahwash*

*Zoology Department. Faculty of science ,Al -Azhar, University.
**Oral Medicine, Periodontology ,Oral Diagnosis and Radiology department, Faculty of Dental
Medicine (girls section) Al- Azhar, University.


The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of some antidiabetic plants on the
hematological parameters in aloxan induced diabetes in albino rats.
Eighty adult albino rats (120-±20 gm b.wt) were randomly divided into eight groups ten on
each group, the first group conserved as control group. The remaining rats were injected with
alloxan to induce diabetes. The second group conserved as diabetic group. The third group was
diabetic rats treated with a mixture consists of Nigella Sativa, Aloe Vera, Ferula assa-foetida ,
Boswelli Carteri, Commiphora Myrrha. (0.1ml/100gm b.wt),
Fourth group treated with 0.1ml/100gm b.w of Nigella Sativa, Fifth group treated with
0.05ml/100gm b.w of Aloe Vera,Sixth group treated with 0.1ml/100gm b.w of Ferula assa-
foetida, Seventh group treated with 0.1ml/100gm b.w of Boswelli Carteri, Eighth group treated
with 0.1ml/100gm b.w of Commiphora Myrrha. Haematological parameters includes: red blood
cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct%), total and
differential white blood cell cont (WBCs) were done after 30 days of treatment and after 15
days of recovery period.
The result of RBCs count, Hb concentration and Hct value were significantly decreased in
diabetic, Nigella Sativa and Aloe Vera treated groups, throughout the experiment, except Aloe
Vera treated group showed insignificant change after the recovery period.while insignificant
changes was recorded in the remnant groups during the experimental period.
WBCs count, lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage were highly significant increased in
diabetic and Ferula assa-foetida treated rats after treatment and recovery periods. While
insignificant differences were observed in the other treated groups. Moreover, no significant
changes were recorded in eosinophils and monocytes in all groups throughout the study period.
Diabetes mellitus in experimental animal can be treated with some plants which have
antidiabetic effect, the present investigation was designed to illustrate any hazard effect of these
plants on some hematological parameter. Further investigations on each plant and their mixture
are needed to role out its effect on both diabetes and the vital parameters.


For long time ago, many plants and
A scientific investigation of herbal
plant extracts which posses marked
remedies for diabetes mellitus may be
hypoglycemic activity have been tried in
helpful in the development of alternative
the treatment of diabetes mellitus in folk
therapeutic strategies (Marls& Farnsworth,
medicine (Asmal&Marble, 1984). More
than 400 traditional plant treatment s have
A number of plants have been shown
been recorded, but only a small part of
to exhibit hypoglycemic activity with
these plants have been investigated
animal models.
scientifically and medically evaluate their
Nigella Sativa has been used as a
efficacy (Lot-likar &Rajaram,1966).
natural medicine for treatment of diabetes,

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 16)

Histological Study Of The Effect Of Zinc Sulphate On The Toxicity Of Aluminium Sulphate In Liver And Kidney Of Male Albino Rat The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 189 ­ 197 June 2005

1687- 2002

Histological Study Of The Effect Of Zinc Sulphate On The Toxicity Of
Aluminium Sulphate In Liver And Kidney Of Male Albino Rats

Azza M. Gawish
Department of zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Aluminium (Al) is one of the most abundant and important elements in the environment. In
recent years, the production of this metal and its toxicity increased with its discharge into the
environment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Al intake toxicity in liver and kidney
tissues of albino rats and the role of zinc as a protective agent against Al toxicity.
Fourty five male albino rats were divided into equal three groups. The first group of animals
was considered as control. The animals in the second group were given (50mg/kg/day) of Al
sulphate orally using gastric tube for 45 day. Third group were given Al sulphate (50mg/kg/day)
followed by zinc sulphate (50mg/kg/day) orally as well as samples of liver and kidney tissues were
obtained after 15, 30, 45 days of last doses respectively. Paraffin sections (5m) were prepared for
histological study stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin.
The obtained histological results of the histological study of the second group showed that
there were congested blood sinusoids and swelling of some hepatocytes within cytoplasm in which
there were vacuoles, fragmented nuclei with some cellular infiltration. Kidney tissue showed
shrinkage of some glomeruli and distortion of the tubular epithelial cells. Results in the third group,
where zinc sulphate was added, showed amelioration and improvement in both liver and kidney

Aluminium is one of the most abundant
toxicity of Al compounds appeared in the
metal in the earth crust. Daily human
hepatocytes when given in amounts near to
exposure of Al ranges from 1.53 to 16 mg
pathological values (Muller et al., 1990). Van
/person/day (Domingo, 1995 and Jeffery et
der Voet et al., (1992) reported that Al
al., 1996). Al is present in water in the form
accumulation was correlated with the
of hydroxides, fluorides and sulphates (Hava
appearance of periportal giant cells due to Al
et al., 1985, Goyer, 1996 and Alleva et al.,
administration in rabbits. Degeneration and
1998). Exposure to Al has recently been
some changes in the hepatic parenchyma
implicated in a number of human pathologies
were observed when male rats were given Al
and symptoms of obstructive lung disease
chloride (Ebina et al., 1984).
were recorded (Sjoren, 1988), samples of
Bertholf et al., (1989) reported that high
welders and many workers showed high
concentrations of Al caused necrosis and
deposition of Al salts in different tissues
atrophy recorded in kidney tissue. Reduced
(Wennberg, 1998, Mur et al., 1998).
renal functions were recorded in infants of
According to Massie et al., (1988);
human with high Al accumulations in their
accumulation of Al has been found in liver
kidney tissue (Flaten et al., 1996). Light and
and kidney but not in brain of mice given Al
electron microscopic studies were applied on
chloride (McDermott et al., 1979 and
kidney tissues in which swelling in some cells
Markesbery et al., 1981). Weilhelm et al.,
of the proximal renal tubules and distortion of
(1996) declared that the lowest level of Al
renal cells of the kidney were observed due to
occurring in cytoplasm in the subcellular
Al administration (Spencer et al., 1995).
fractions might lead to accumulation of Al in
Recently, the toxic effects of aluminium
the liver. Other study reported that moderate
has been correlated with induction of free

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 17)

ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION OF RABBIT WITH GAMMA IRRADIATED COBRA (Naja haje) VENOM TOXOID The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 198 ­ 207 June 2005

1687- 2002

Active Immunization Of Rabbit With Gamma Irradiated Cobra
(Naja haje) Venom Toxoid

Esmat A. Shaban
Department of Drug Radiation Research and Technology,
Atomic Energy Authority


Cobra (Naja haje) venom detoxified by gamma radiation (15KGy or 25KGy) was used
as toxoid for active immunization of rabbits following a short schedule ( on day 0, 7,21) of
immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant. Effective neutralization of venom toxin by
immune sera of rabbits was observed. The presence of antibody in the immune sera was
detected by immuno-diffusion test. The non-irradiated and the two dose levels gamma irradiated
Naja haje venom, against the antivenin antibody produced with non-irradiated venom or against
antivenin antibody produced with 15 KGy gamma irradiated venom all showed similar patterns.
Also there was no change in the titer of antivenin solution obtained from the rabbit immunized
with 15KGy irradiated venom , as compared with that antivenin solution obtained from rabbit
immunized with non-irradiated venom. Sera of rabbits immunized with 15KGy irradiated
venom toxoid (15KGy toxoid antiserum) neutralized venom lethality, 95% of protease activity
and 50% of phospholipase A2.


Cobra (Naja haje) is one of the major
causes of snake bites death in Egypt.
phosphodiesterase activities of the crude
Detoxified venoms can be used to produce
venom ( Hati et al., 1990). Shaban (1990)
antiserum as an effort to protect the animals
also, developed a toxoid by gamma irradia-
from the venom toxicity. Detoxification of
tion against Androctonus amoreuxi scorp-
antigen or toxoid production requires that
ion venom which produce a potent antive-
venom loses its toxicity, but at the same
nom (in rabbits with complete Freund's
time retains maximum immunogenicity
adjuvant) which neutralize venom lethality
(Khan et al., 1977). Several techniques
as well as some biochemical and pharmac-
have been used to detoxify venom such as:
ological venom toxicities. Preliminary
treatment with formaldehyde (Khan et al.
experiments with Naja haje venom (Shaban
1977), glutaraldehyde (Guidolin et al.,
et al., 1996) showed that the lethality of
1989), and iodine (Rocha et al., 1992).
Naja haje venom irradiated in the dry form
Linking carboxymethyl-cellulose (Moroz
was not affected up to a dose of 100 KGy.
et al.1963), functional group blockage
On the other hand, the venom irradiated in
(Chicheportiche et al., 1972), and by
the aqueous solution form showed a
encapsulation in lyosomes (Freitas and
decrease in lethality while the ability of the
Frezard 1997). One method that has been
venom antigens to react with its
shown to be effective for attenuating venom
corresponding antibodies was retained up to
toxicity and maintaining immunogenicity is
irradiation dose of 50KGy. Effective
gamma radiation (Nascimento et al., 1996).
toxoids against (Naja haje and Cerastes
An effective toxoid against Russell's Viper
cerastes) snake venom, were developed by
venom was developed by gamma irradia-
Shaban (2003) using gamma irradiation (15
tion which yielded a potent antivenom (in
KGy). The toxoids obtained are devoided of
rabbits without adjuvant) capable of
toxicity while retaining their antigenicity.

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 18)

Effects of Intracameral Injection of Lidocaine on The Cornea in A Rabbit Model The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 19: 208 ­ 231 June 2005

1687- 2002
Effects of Intracameral Injection of Lidocaine on The Cornea in A Rabbit
Model. Scanning Electronmicroscopic Study

Wafaa S. Ramadan
Anatomy Department , Faculty of Medicine , Ain Shams University.

Combined topical and intracameral anesthesia proved to be an alternative to peribulbar
and retrobulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery especially in phacoemulsification approach.. So,
in the present work the effect of intracameral injection of different concentrations of lidocaine
on the structure of rabbit's cornea was studied using the freez-fracture technique and the
scanning electron microscope . Fourteen baladi rabbits of both sexes weighing 2-3 kg.were
used and divided into two groups according to the concentration of lidocaine .One eye of the
animals of the first group was injected with 0.2 ml. of 0.5% lidocaine into the anterior chamber
and the other eye with balanced salt solution (BSS)and served as control . In the second group ,
one eye was injected with 0.2 ml. of 2% lidocaine and the other eye with (BSS) .In both groups
the duration of injection was 10 minutes. Parts of the cornea were prepared for scanning
electron microscopic examination. The control specimens showed polygonal epithelial cells
with surface microvilli , microplicae and craters. The craters had raised edges with fenestrations
and / or microvilli on their floor. Bowman's membrane was acellular homogenous layer.The
stromal lamellae were arranged in zip pattern. The keratocytes were spindle-shaped with
irregular surface . Descemet's membrane appeared to be splitted. The endothelium was seen as
polygonal cells with raised edges and surface micrvilli. With the use of 0.5% lidocaine the
endothelial cells became oedematous. On the other hand, with the use of 2% lidocaine there was
excessive blebs, bullae and marked oedema of the endothelium with sloughing of some cells.
So, the injection of high concentration of lidocaine into the anterior chamber during cataract
operation is a potential risk for endothelial injury that may lead to loss of corneal
transparency.However using the low concentration of lidocaine appeared to be safe with no
adverse effects .

Key words:
intracameral anesthesia, cornea, lidocaine, phacoemulsification


Corneal transparency is a remarkable
content (oedema) (2) abnormal collagen
characteristic that is essential for vision. It
fiber diameter and orientation (scar) (3)
is a vascular structure. The cornea depends
abnormal accumulation of macromolecules
on the aqueous humor in the anterior
(proteins&lipids) (Moller-Pedersen, 2004).
chamber and on tears for its nourishment. It
Corneal endothelium undoubtfully
is formed of a highly organized group of
plays a crucial role in the maintainence of
cells, fibers and proteins. The knowledge of
the corneal barrier and its injury may cause
corneal microanatomy is essential for an
stromal oedema and subsequent stromal
understanding of its pathological injuries.
opacity. The corneal epithelium is also
The corneal transparency depends
subjected to cellular injury either mecha-
mainly upon the stromal extracellular
nically or during introduction of anesthesia
matrix and the regular arrangement of
during eye surgery particularly the phacoe-
collagen fibers. Disorder of these two
mulsification technique (cataract approach )
components often results in corneal
with topical anesthesia.
haziness. The loss of corneal transparency
In recent years, topical anesthesia
has been explained by a combination of
(drops & gel) for cataract extraction and
three main factors (1) abnormal water
phacoemulsification has been shown to be

Full Paper (vol.19 paper# 19)