Protective Role of Lycopene Against Diethylnitrosamine The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 1 13 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687 2002
Protective Role of Lycopene Against Diethylnitrosamine
Induced Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

Inas Z.A. Abdallah and Hala A.H. Khattab
Nutrition and Food Science Dept., Faculty of Home Economics,
Helwan University.

Abstract

Lycopene was considered as a major carotenoid in the human diet for only the last few
centuries. Recently lycopene has been found to possess chemoprotective effect against
gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder, prostate and breast cancers. In the present study, the
protective effect of lycopene, the natural extract from tomato pomace against diethylnitrosamine
(DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation in rats was investigated. Four
groups of male albino rats at the age of 6 weeks were studied: 1) control (C), 2) DEN, i.p.
injected 5 times with doses of 200 mg/kg b.w., one dose every two days. 3) Lycopene, orally
given 0.12 mg/rat/day. 4) Lycopene + DEN, the treatment with lycopene started 7 days before
DEN injection and continued till the end of the experimental period. Rats in group 2 and 4 were
treated with Phenobarbital (PB) at a dose of 500 ppm in the drinking water as a tumor promoter.
PB treatment started with the first injection of DEN and continued till the end of the
experimental period. The results indicated that DEN caused HCC nodules as evidenced by a
remarkable significant increase in -L-fucosidase and metal oproteinases (MMPs) enzyme activity
in both serum and cytosol. Increased activity of these enzymes is a marker for both
preneoplastic and carcinoma lesions. Administration of lycopene prior to DEN injection
protected rats from DEN-induced HCC as evidenced by a significant descent in -L-fucosidase
and MMPs enzymes activity in both serum and cytosol. The histological investigation of liver
tissue confirmed these results. DEN group showed proliferated hyperplastic and anaplastic
hepatocellular nodules surrounded with thin layer of fibroblastic cells, desmoplasia and
inflammatory cells infiltrations, focal hepatic haemorrhages and necrosis. Meanwhile, lycopene
+ DEN group showed no histopathological changes. These results indicate that lycopene
effectively inhibits DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

Introduction:


Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) belongs to
implication in causing gastrointestinal cancers
the relatively small group of carcinogens
of the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, liver,
that has been thoroughly investigated. It
pancreas and colorectum (Chhabra et al., 1996,
induced hepatocellular carcinomas, which
Jen and Yuan, 1994 and Magee, 1996). Since
is one of the most common endpoints in
nitrosamines are suspected carcinogens in
cancer tests (Finnberg et al., 1999). DEN is
humans because the intestinal bacterial
considered to be a genotoxic carcinogen
flora can transform nitrites and nitrates in
(Lewis et al., 1997). Since it is positive in
the food into powerful carcinogenic
tests for genotoxicity and can induce many
nitrosamines (Ames and Gold, 1990), the
types of DNA damage and alterations that
mechanisms of their toxic action have been
lead to mutations by alkylation and other
the focus of attention for several years (Lin
mechanisms (Nakae et al., 1997). Phenob-
and Ho, 1994 and Yang and Smith, 1996).
arbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic carcinogen and
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is
has often been used as a tumor promoter
one of the major malignant tumors in
(Osanai et al., 1997).
humans and causes more than 250,000
The presence of nitrosamines in foods is
deaths annually worldwide (Kuo et al.,
considered a risk factor because of their
1998). It is closely associated with hepatic
1


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Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 1)


Everted Intestinal Sacs As In vitro Model For Assessing Absorptivity Of L-Histidine Under The Effect Of Aspirine And Gum Acaci The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 14 28 September 2004
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687-2002

Everted Intestinal Sacs As In vitro Model For Assessing Absorptivity Of L-
Histidine Under The Effect Of Aspirine And Gum Acacia In Male Rats


Mahmoud Rabeh Mahmoud
Zoology Department, Faculty Of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal permeability changes over a range
of physiologically relevant intestinal injury. The experiments were performed in 80 rats
subdivided into four groups as aspirin (400 mg/kg b.w.), gum Acacia ( 1g./day) and aspirin
with gum Acacia groups for 21 days compared with control group. Relative reabsorption of L-
Histidine was greater(p<0.001) in the aspirin in 10 min of incubation compared with that of the
control rats. In aspirin in combination with gum Acacia, the relative reabsorption were
significantly (p<0.001) decrease in 10, 20 and 30 min. of incubation compared with that of the
control rats. Moreover, the relative reabsorption of L-histidine was significantly (p<0.01)
reduced by the aspirin at 45 min of time of the incubation buffer compared with that of the
control. However, gum acacia treatment was increased at 10 min (p<0.01) ,30 min (p<0.01) and
45 min (p<0.001) respectively compared with that of the control rats. Relative reabsorption of
L-histidine record a nonsignificant increase of aspirin at 20 min and 30 min of incubation
compared with that of the control. Gum and aspirin with gum at 20min and 45min of
incubation resulted an increase and decrease in relative reabsorption of L-histidine respectively
compared with that of the control. Aspirin and aspirin in combination with gum acacia
treatment increased body, intestinal weights and mucosal total protein significantly with percent
changes ranged from 8% to 40% compared with that of the control. On the other hand, gum
treatment decreased body, intestinal weights and mucosal total protein significantly with percent
changes ranged from 8% to 35% compared with that of the control. These results demonstrated
that L-histidine is actively taken up by a gum Acacia system in intestinal everted sac mechanism
of rat with energy supplied by glucose and Na+in incubation buffer. Moreover, aspirin system
had an inhibitory effect on L-histidine uptake in 45 min of incubation , indicating the saturation
by L-histidine in first ten minuts of incubation. Also, these results provide evidence the uptake
of L-histidine into rat intestine was not reduced at all by the treatment of aspirin. These results
suggest that the uptake of L-histidine by intestinal everted sac of rat has different characteristics
of aspirin with gum compared with that of the control in respect to relative reabsorption of L-
histidine.

Key words:
everted sac, L-histidine,Aspirin, Gum arabic, relative reabsorption.

Introduction

Intestinal absorption of peptides were
to an increase in intestinal permeability,
performed with the everted small intestine
which involves the passive, nonmediated
by Mizuma et al.,1992. The mucosa of
diffusion of both small and large molecules
gastrointestinal (GI) tract protects the
from GI lumen to the blood (Travis and
internal gut lumen from bacteria and
Menzies,1992).
Increased
intestinal
bacterial product such as endotoxin
permeability can result from numerous
(Gisolfi, 2000). This protective feature of
pathophysiological conditions including
the gastrointestinal mucosa is referred to as
hemorrhage and endotoxemia (Salzman et
GI barrier. Dysfunction of this barrier leads
al.,1994; Unno et al.,1997; Anand et
14

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 2)


Effect Of Exposure To Electromagnetic Field On Tumour Growth And Some Serum Parameters In Mice Implanted With Ehrlich Tumour The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 29 38 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002


Effect Of Exposure To Electromagnetic Field On Tumour Growth And
Some Serum Parameters In Mice Implanted With Ehrlich Tumour.


Mervat Abdel-Rahman
Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Student Hospital, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt


Abstract

Objective: To investigate the bio-effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on
blood elements, blood glucose, liver and kidney functions of mice implanted with Ehrlich
tumour. Methods: female BALB/c mice inoculated subcutaneously with cell suspension
isolated from Ehrlich ascitis carcinomas were exoposed to sinusoidal 50 Hz, 0.2 Tm for 21
days. Results: exposure to low frequency EMF resulted in a pronounced decrease in tumour
growth. The increase in total leucocytic count, liver enzymes, bilirubin, blood glucose and
creatinine observed in mice with implaned tumours, was significantly reduced by low frequency
EMF exposure. Conclusions: these results suggest that exposure to low frequency EMF of 50
Hz inhibits malignant growth in mice with Ehrlich tumour. It is suggested that low frequency
EMF may find utility as a method in the treatment of tumours, either alone or in conjunction
with chemotherapeutic agents.

Key Words: Magnetic field, Ehrlich tumour, Mice, kidney, Liver, Blood picture

Introduction


There has been considerable interest
Wrensch et al., 1993; Loomis et al., 1993;
in the potential biological effects of
Savitz and Loomis, 1995). One major
electromagnetic flied (EMF) exposure over
problem with the epidemiological studies
the past few years. Previous studies
was that information on exposure was
suggested that EMF may influence the
scarce. Exposure to EMF is so "universal
physiological processes in
biological
and unavoidable", so that true controls in
systems. Particular interest has been given
the sense of zero exposure to technofields
by many researchers to the effects of low
are not available. Hence, all of these studies
frequency EMF (Pasquinelli et al., 1993;
compare higher exposure to lower
Petrini et al., 1990). For example,
exposure. (Havas, 2000).
Pasquinelli et al. (1993) suggested that
On the other hand, many attempts
exposure to low frequency EMF of 75 HZ
have been made to explain the anti-tumour
and an intensity of 20 Gauss caused an
effectiveness of electrotherapy alone or of
increase in mouse life span. More recently,
its combined use with other established
Chater et al (2004) provided data
therapeutic treatments (Ito and Hashimoto,
suggesting that sub-acute exposure to EMF
1989; Nilsson et al., 2000). Gamaley et. al.
(128 mT 1hour/day for 10 consecutive
(1995) showed that macrophage cells are
days) stimulates plasma corticosterone and
sensitive to electromagnetic fileds in the
liver metallothionein activities in rats.
frequency range 15-99 HZ with maximum
Epidemiological studies have suggested
sensitivity at 50 HZ. They concluded that
that EMF may increase the risk of various
their data may have some significance for
types of cancer, including leukemia, brain
the effect of therapy using high frequency
and breast tumours (Juutilainen et al., 1990;
therapeutic equipment.
92

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 3)


Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Glutathione Against the Histopathological Changes Induced by Imidacloprid in the Liver and The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 39 54 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002


Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Glutathione Against the
Histopathological Changes Induced by Imidacloprid in the Liver and Testis
of Japanese Quail.

Omiama Soliman Eissa
National Center for Radiation Research and Technology



Abstract

Pesticides are double wedged weapons. They are considered to be the heavy cost of
civilization. They are widely used in our daily life. Recently their effects on male fertility have
attracted attention. One of these pesticides is imidacloprid. This work was designed to
investigate the histological changes in liver and testis of Japanese quail treated with
imidacloprid for different periods as well as the reversibility of such changes after arrest of the
treatment for recovery period. The effect of vitamin C and glutathione as a protective agent
against the action of imidacloprid on liver and testis was also determined.

Introduction

Pesticides are widely used for control
Among
the
various
problems
of pests in many fields to protect public
associated with pesticide use is the
health, subsistence of crops, food and other
possibility of its biological accumulation
materials essential to mankind and animals.
which produces real problems, considering
Imidacloprid is a new insecticide and
that many animal tissues and milk are
it belongs to a new active group
ingested by human beings (Kutches et al.,
nitroguanidine. Many representatives of this
1970), which may cause clinical and
class of compounds, imidacloprid in
subclincal effects leading to loss in animal
particular, have an excellent insecticide
performance or in residual contamination of
action (Brocksma et al. 1993). The action
animal deviation which may later be
mechanism of imidacloprid differs not only
consumed by humans (Ceron et al., 1995).
from that of the organophosphorous
Thus, the disappearance of pesticide
compounds and carbametes, but also from
residues at a given location does not mean
that of the pyrethroids. (Soloway et al,
the end of the problem, but it might be
1978).
translocated, bioconcentrated or converted
It is of interest to study the effect of
into
more
dangerous
compounds
imidacloprid on one of the most important
(Matsumura, 1985).
economic birds, the Japanese quail
Zafeiridon and Theophilids (2004),
(Couternix Couternix japonica). Dieher et
described the mode of action of
al.
(1991)
found
that
after
the imidacloprid as agonist on the nicotinic
discovery of the nitromethylene and chloro-
acetylcholine receptors of motor neuron,
pyridyl insecticidal compounds, which are
i.e. prevent the binding of acetylcholine to
considered as powerful insecticides and
certain acetylcholine receptors (AchRs) by
perform an important mechanism of action
binding to these receptors themselves, in
more over than phosphates, carbamates and
other words, imidacloprid acts as nicotinic
pyrethroid insecticides groups. Another
acetylcholine
receptors
stimulator
potent insecticides, in addition to the
(nAchRs). The selectivity of this molecule
nitromethylene
compounds,
are
the
and analogue may be due to the
guanidine derivatives.
insensitivity
of
mammalian
nicotinic
39

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 4)


Antihepatotoxic potential of ginseng (Panax ginseng) in thioacetamide-induced acute hepatocellular injury in rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 55 64 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002

Antihepatotoxic potential of ginseng (Panax ginseng) in
thioacetamide-induced acute hepatocellular injury in rats


Amira Tohamey Ebrahim1, Ahkam, M. El-Gendy1, and
Boshra El-Zawahry 2

1 Faculty of Science (Girls) and 2Faculty of Medicine (Girls) Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Abstract

Previous studies demonstrated the hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. The
present study is a trial to decline TAA-hepatotoxicity by using the roots of herbal medicinal
plant (Panax ginseng) pre-treatment .
Low dose of TAA (50-mg/kg b.wt) was chosen to induce hepatoxicity in male rats
previously treated with ginseng for 10 consecutive days. The tested parameters were studied
after 24, 48 and 72 hours post TAA intoxication. Fluctuatious of serum glucose were noticed in
TAA intoxicated rats increased after 24 h (+ 9.31%), 48h. (+ 7.11%), followed by moderate
improvement after 72 h. (+5.39%) when compared with control group. Ginseng pretreatment
enhanced these changes towards the normal values.
Serum and liver enzyme activities ( AST, AIT, ALP and GT) increased in TAA
intoxicated rats which peaked after 48 h, and began to decrease after 72h. Pretreatment with
ginseng improved enzyme activities to some extent.
Reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GSH-R)
activity while lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased in TAA intoxicated rats and enhanced by
pretreatment with ginseng.
This results suggest that pretreatment with ginseng could improve the detoxifying activity
of the liver rats with TAA-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

Key words: Liver toxicity- Thioacetamide- Ginseng, Liver Function - Liver antioxidant - Lipid
peroxidation.


Introduction

Panax ginseng (roots) are widely used for
impairment and muscle contraction deterio-
medicinal purposes, often without having
ration (Tohn, 1994), as well as, it prevented
been prescribed by a physician. It has been
myocardial schemia - reperfusion damage
used in folk medicine against liver
in rats ( Maffei-facino et al., 1999).
complaints. Ginseng is a potent antioxidant
The most important part of ginseng is the
which reduce tissue damage induced by
root. The chemical constituents of this plant
free radicals (Sohn et al., 1993 and Kitts et
root are arabinose, comphore, mucilage,
al., 2000). It has been reported that ginseng
resin, starch and saponins (FDA, 1999). The
can increase body resistance to many
root of ginseng contains more than 18
harmful factors and protect tissues from
saponins which are considered as the active
damage caused by stress (Liu et al., 1995).
fractions of ginseng. The majority of them
Moreover, it has a beneficial effect on
can classified to 2 groups panaxadiol which
various
hematological
parameters
differ in sugar moiety at the position of
( Ferrando et al.,1999). It helped to delay
carbon 3-6 and 20 (Sanada et al., 1974 and
experimentally-induced heart mitochondrial
Shoji,
1974).
The
most
important
55

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 5)


Adrenal Suppression Induced by Megestrol Acetate and the possible protective role of selenium The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 65 91 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002


Adrenal Suppression Induced by Megestrol Acetate and the possible
protective role of selenium
A Histological , Histochemical and Ultrastructural Study

Hamdy Hamed Swelim
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

Abstract

The anticancer drug megestrol acetate (MA) is suspected to cause adrenal insufficiency.
Several clinical reports indicated that suppressed adrenal function might be possible in long
term administration of MA . The present study was designed to evaluate this issue by using the
histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The data obtained from the present
study indicated that MA caused various cellular and subcellular damages in most of the cells of
the three zones of adrenal cortex. Histochemical investigations indicated increased lipid content
associated with increased storage of ascorbic acid and acid phosphatase, and all these data might
reflect a state of suppressed steroidogenesis. The results also indicated that selenium might have
a protective role against the cytotoxicity of megestrol acetate on adrenocortical cells. All the
results were discussed and it is concluded that more followup of adrenal function should be
done during the long term treatment with MA, and it is suggested that selenium can be used as
an additional protective supplement .


Introduction

Cancer is a disease in which there is
carcinomas as well as for the treatment of
uncontrolled multiplication and spread
acne, hirsutism, and sexual infantilism in
within the body of abnormal forms of
females and metastatic prostate carcinoma
body's own cells. It is one of the major
in males (Naing et al., 1999). Some
causes of death all around the world.
countries, use MA in combination oral
Figures for the last century give the
contraceptive preparations and recently it
impression that the disease is increasing in
became one of the most commonly used
spite of the advances made in the main
drugs for the treatment of AIDS and cancer
treatment approaches; surgical excision,
related weight loss. However, despite this
irradiation and chemotherapy (Rang et al.,
apparent benefit, available data suggest that
2003). In chemotherapy, hormonal maneu-
weight gain which is caused as a
veres have considerable use in the
consequence of treatment with MA is
management of breast and uterine cancer,
largely adipose tissue and not body muscles
and progestins are hormonal agents with
(Inui, 2002).
considerable antitumor activity (Aisner et
The
major
challenge
facing
al., 1987). The hormonal therapy of tumors
chemotherapy is that cancer cells and
is dependent on the presence of receptors
normal cells are so similar in many respects
for these hormones in the malignant cells
that it is more difficult to find general,
(Rang et al., 2003).
exploitable,
biochemical
differences
Megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic
between them. Hence, chemotherapy is
progestin which is known commercially as
usually associated with unavoidable side
megace and used in human medicine for the
effects. Like all drugs, MA may develop
treatment of endometrial and breast
several side effects among the patients to

65

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 6)


Antidiabetic effect of an aqueous extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 92 99 September 2004
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12084
1687-2002

Antidiabetic effect of an aqueous extract of Pomegranate
(Punica granatum L.) peels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats

Enas A. M. Khalil
National Organization For Drug Control
And Research

Abstract
Hypoglycaemic drugs are either too expensive or have undesirable side effects including
hematological, coma and disturbances of liver and kidney.
Limiting of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. This
leads to exert effort to search for effective, safer and less cost antidiabetic plants.
This investigation aims to evaluate the role of Punica granatum powder peels extract in its
human therapeutic dose on beta cell numbers blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in normal
and alloxan diabetic rats for 4-weeks of treatment.
The treatment revealed that pomegranate aqueous extract significant decreased blood
glucose and increased insulin levels in normal and diabetic treated rats. Pancreas showed
increased number of beta cells in normal and treated diabetic rats.
In conclusion pomegranate peel aqueous extract can reduce blood sugar through
regeneration of cells.

Introduction
It generally accepted that the
1995) and hypoglycemia effect (Nogueira
sulphonyle ureas produce hypoglycemia in
and Pereira, 1984, 1986 a,b; Zofar and
normal animals by stimulating the
Singh 1990).
pancreatic cells to release more insulin
It was found that Punica grantum
.These drugs ,however ,do not decrease
peels contain tannins, anthocynins, flavo-
blood glucose in alloxan diabetic animals
noids ,pectins (Nozire and Serpil,1993),
(Goth,1985). In addition ,the exogenous
three estrogen compounds luteolin, querc-
administration of insulin is well known to
etin and kaempferol (Van-Elswijk et al,
produce hypoglycaemia in both normal and
2004).
alloxan induced subjects (Larner,1985).
This investigation aims to evaluate the
This leads to increasing demand for natural
role of Punica grantum powder peels
products with potent antidiabetic and less
extract in its human therapeutic dose on
side effect.
beta cell numbers, blood glucose and
Various parts of Pomegranate (Punica
plasma insulin levels in normal and alloxan
granatum L.) have been used for various
diabetic rats for 4-weeks of treatment
medicinal purposes .

Many studies have shown that the
Material and methods
pomegranate peel extract has wound
Plant material
healing properties(Chidambara, et al,
200ml boiling distilled water were
2004), possesses antioxidant activity
added to3gm powder pomegranate peel, left
(Chidambara et al , 2002), immunomod-
it for 10 minutes and filtered .The filterate
ulatory activity (Gracious et al, 2001),
was dried at 40-45C0 in the incubator .
antibacterial activity (Prashanth et al,

2001), gastroprotectective effect (Gharzouli
Animals
et al ,1999), larvicidal activity (Morsy et
Male albino rats weighing 12010gm
al,1998), antifungal activity (Dutta et al .,
were obtained from the observed first
1998), antitumor action (Mavhjanav et al ,
generation for a period of time .The animals
(1997), antimicrobial effect (Navarro, et
were caged and provided with food and
al,1996), antiviral activity (Zhang et al,
water adlibitum. Injection of alloxan
92

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 7)


A Study Of Mr Imaging Of The Basal Ganglia And Serum Manganese Concentration In Cirrhotic Patients With Portosystemic Shunting The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 100 111 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002

A Study Of MR Imaging Of The Basal Ganglia And Serum Manganese
Concentration In Cirrhotic Patients With Portosystemic Shunting


Hani Abu Zeid*, Mohamed farouk Aggag**, Walid Foad Ismail***
and Ola M. Abdullah****
Departments of Internal Medicine*, Radiology** and Neurology***, Faculty of
Medicine Al Azhar university Cairo.
Department of analytical chemistry****-Faculty of Pharmacy (girls)
Al Azhar university-Cairo.

Abstract
Manganese in normally removed by hepatobiliary route. In long term hepatic dysfunction
with portosystemic shunting it accumulates in systemic circulation and may deposit in CNS
particularly in the basal ganglia, resulting in permanent extrapyramidal manifestations and
a unique form of parkinsonism characterized by early gait impairment, postural fine tremor,
symmetric akinetic rigidity and sometimes associated with focal dystonia (Purkhard et al.,
2003). In this study: 50 male cirrhotic patients, aged 28 59 years, were selected from Internal
Medicine department Al Hussein university hospital, in addition to 20 age-matched healthy
males as a control group. All subjects (patients & controls) were submitted to (1) Full clinical &
laboratory examination including liver function tests and serum manganese estimation using
atomic absorption technique. (2) Abdominal triphasic spiral CT scanning for evaluation of
portosystemic collaterals and to assess the hepatic intensity and the splenic size (3) MR Imaging
of the brain. We have concluded that: (i) The studied cirrhotic patients had a statistically higher
serum manganese concentration than that of the controls. (ii) 24/50 patients (48%) showed
variable degrees of basal ganglia hyperintensity on T1- weighted MR images, associated with
marked elevation of serum manganese levels (five to seven fold the normal level) and advanced
grades of gastroesophageal varices on triphasic spiral CT scanning (iii) 26/50 patients (52%)
showed normal intensity in the basal ganglia on T1- weighted MR images with relatively Lower
levels of serum manganese (two to four fold the normal level) and early grade of
gastroesophageal varices on triphasic spiral CT scanning (iv) serum manganese concentration of
cirrhotic patients with hyperintensity in the basal ganglia on T1 weighted MR imaging was
statistically higher than that of cirrhotic patients with normal intensity basal ganglia.

Introduction & Aim Of The Work:
Cirrhotic
patients
with
hepatic
acquired hepatocerebral degeneration have
insufficiency and portosystemic shunting
not yet been fully determined (Burk hard,
may have neurological syndromes resulting
2003), Hypermanganemia with deposition
from permanent central nervous system
of manganese (Mn) in CNS may be
(CNS) changes mainly in the basal ganglia,
implicated (Rose et al., 1999).
less commonly in other CNS sites such as
Lesion with high signal intensity on
cerebellum, spinal cord and even cerebral
T1- weighted MR imaging are unusual and
cortex. Symptoms of these syndromes
are associated with relatively few entities,
respond partially to treatment of hepatic
including paramagnetic trace elements
encephalopathy and thought to be related to
(particularly manganese) infiltration.
organic changes in CNS (Bernthal et al.,
In this study, we aimed to
1987). The precise relationship between
demonstrate prospectively the prevalence of
chronic liver disease and these syndromes
extrapyramidal symptoms in cirrhotic
is unknown. The clinical, neuroradiological
patients, determine their main neurological
and biochemical characteristics of such
features and to establish the correlation of
100

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 8)


A hepatoprotective effect of an aqueous extract of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 112 118 September 2004
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12084
1687-2002

A hepatoprotective effect of an aqueous extract of pomegranate
( Punica granatum L. ) rind against acetaminop hen treated rats

Enas A. M. Khalil
National Organization For Drug Control
And Research

Abstract
In ancient times Egyptians regarded pomegranate fruit as a symbol of fertility due to the
round shape and abundant seeds .They used it to heal many ailments.
Pomegranate (El-Ruwmon ) that fruit mentioned in our holy Quran not less than three
times, that paid attention for its importance.
This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous rind powder
extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in its human therapeutic dose against overdose
acetaminophen.
Pretreatment of rats with 0.43g/KgB.W.of an aqueous rind extract of Punica granatum for
3 days before intraperitoneally (i. p.) injection of 0.5gm acetaminophen significantly reduced
the acute elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST),serum alanine aminotransferase ,
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)and alleviated the degree of liver damage after the i.p. injection of
hepatotoxin. The group treated only with 0.5gm acetaminophen displayed significant increase in
serum (AST),(ALT), (LHD)and liver displayed congestion of central and hepatic portal veins,
vacuolization and ballooning also a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small
necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Inflammatory cells inbetween hepatocytes and around the portal
tract were observed. Some fatty droplets were scattered in the hepatocytes.
In conclusion aqueous extract of pomegranate peels possess a strong antioxidant capacity
could ameliorate the damage occurred in liver by overdose acetaminophen

Introduction

Punica granatum fruit rind was
reported to promote tissue healing
traditionally used in many ways as
(Chidambara et al, 2004), modulate host
medicine to treat diarrehoea and dysentery,
responses (Gracious et al, 2001) , has
even for children, for dyes, inks and tannins
chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic
for leather (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
potential for human breast cancer (Kim et
Astringent properties of the fruit rind
al, 2002) , has an inhibitory effect on skin
and fruit juice explain the antidiarrhoeal
tumor development (Hora et al., 2003),a
activity (Das et al, 1999). Several parts of
chemopreventive
agent
against
lung
the plant have been used as haemostatic,
tumorgenesis (Castonguagy et al,1994) and
anathematic specially against tapeworms
promote cell function and replication
and as a remedy for diabetes (Satyavati et
(Alekperov, 2002)
al, 1978). Further, a number of therapeutic
Pomegrante rind is thought to provide
actions of these material have been
natural antiviral(Zhang et al, 1995) ,antif-
described including providing minerals to
ungal (Dutta et al .,1998) and antibacterial
liver and assimilates vitamin A from food
benefits (Prashanth et al, 2001).
intake,
reduce
atherosclerotic
lesion
The rind contains tannins, anthoc-
,increase resistance to tuberculosis ,relieve,
ynins, flavonoids ,pectins (Nozire and
hypertension ,mental tension and hysteria.
Serpil, 1993), ellagitannins (punicalin ,
Using pomegranate in the powder form to
punicalagin, granatin, gallagyldilactone,
treat nose bleeds, tooth paste and gum
casurinin), pedunculagin, tellimagrandin ,
powder (Duck et al, 2002). The Punica
corilagin (Satomi et al, 1993), ellagic
granatum medicinal herb have been
tannins, gallic, ellagic acids, ursolic acid
112

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Evening Primrose Oil Attenuates the Radiation Induced The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 119 131 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002


Evening Primrose Oil Attenuates Certain Radiation Induced
Functional and structural Disorders in Female Rats.

Fatma, L.R. and Rezk R. G.

Radiation Biology, Department . NCRRT.
Radiation Health Research Department NCRRT.
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modulator role of evening primrose oil
(EPO) on the radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities.
Female rats were exposed to 5 Gy whole body -irradiation delivered as single dose. EPO
was orally administrated to rats (9 ml/100g b.wt) 7 days before irradiation exposure. Animals
were sacrificed 1 day (oestrus stage), 6 days (one estrus cycle) and 12 days (two estrus cycle)
after irradiation. The results obtained revealed that treatment with EPO diminished the increase
in total cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels in plasma in comparison with the levels recorded
in the plasma of irradiated rats. Significant amelioration of the radiation induced changes in
RBC,s WBC,s count and the haemoglobin concentration, calcium level, FSH and LH hormones
were also recorded in the plasma of EPO treated and irradiated rats. Histological observations of
photomicrograph of kidney and ovary sections showed that irsaoiaun resulted in irradiation
induced ruptured, dilated, haemorrhage glomerulei dissolution of the majority of primary
follicles, and atrophy in ovary size. All these changes were obviously improved in animals
supplied with EPO.
It could be concluded that EPO could be useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of
biochemical functions and restoring the original histological architecture of kidney and ovary
after irradiation.

Introduction

Evening Primrose oil derived from
amplified and expressed as biological injury
plant seeds was shown to possess antidi-
(Cockerham et al., 1994).
abetic and anti-inflammatory properties
One of the systems most sensitive to
(Garland et al., 1997 and Schalin-Karrila et
irradiation is the hematopoietic system
al., 1987). The oil contains the essential
which is characterized by a depression in
fatty acids Gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
the peripheral blood levels after irradiation
and linoleic acid (LA) vital to body health
(Monroy, 1987).
(Barcelli et al., 1990). GLA is a precurser
The kidney was reported to be
of prostaglandins a group of highly reactive
relatively radiosensitive compared to other
molecules which plays a role in regulation
abdominal organs. Pathophysiological and
of growth and reproduction (Horrobin,
histopathological changes are dose and time
1983), as well as in treatment of breast
dependent.
pain, tenderness and fluid retention occur-
Pathologic changes in endothelial
red in premenstrulation.
cells of renal microvasculature appears
Radiation interacts with matter by
soon after exposure to radiation and later
direct and indirect processess to form ion
tubule and glomeruli degeneration are
pairs, some of which may be free radicals
observed (Mettler & Moseley, 1985 and
that lead to molecular damage translated to
Yeas, 1992).
biochemical damage that may be then
Radiosensitivity of the ova depends

119

Full Paper (vol.16 paper# 10)


Biochemical and histopathological changes in male albino rats The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 16 : 132 139 September 2004
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687-2002

Biochemical and histopathological changes in male albino rats
treated with overdose of an aqueous extract of pomegranate
(Punica granatum L.) pericarps

Enas A. M. Khalil
National Organization For Drug Control And Research

Abstract

Pomegranate has been cultivated since ancient times. All parts of this plant were used to
treat various ailments.
It mentioned for three times in the Holy Quran under the name of Rumman in Surah (Al-
Anaam) verse 99 , Surah (Al-Anaam) verse 141 and Surah (Al-Rahman)verse 68.
In Surah (Al-Anaam) verse 141.' It is He who produce the gardens with trellises and
without ,and dates and tilth with produce of all kinds and olives and pomegranates ,similar (in
kind ) and different (in variety) :eat of their fruit in their season ,but the dues that are proper on
the day that the harvest is gathered .But waste not by excess. For Allah loves not the wasters''.
This investigation aims to study the effect of repeated over doses of an aqueous extract
of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L .) pericarps in male albino rats for a month.
Oral administration of repeated over doses ( 1.3g/k) of an aqueous extract of pomegranate
( Punica granatum L .) pericarps in male albino rats for month displayed significant increase in
serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT),alkaline phosphatase
and liver revealed congestion of central vein ,dilatation of sinusoids , vacuolization and (ALT)
ballooning also a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many necrotic areas of hepatocytes.
Inflammatory cells were detected inbetween hepatocytes, dilatation of the portal tract and
fibrosis noticed around it. Elevation of serum urea , creatinine ,dilatation and severe congestion
of blood vessels , most glomeruli were congested ,dilatated, and some appeared degenerated.
Diffuse extravagations of red blood cells between the degenerated renal tubules were noticed
.Augmentation of serum total cholesterol , decreased serum triglycerides and formation of
medial calcinosis in aorta. Reduction in serum testosterone level, some seminiferous tubules
appeared normal but the others appeared affected.
All things must be taken in moderation because repeated high doses of an aqueous extract
of pomegranate pericarps will be toxic.

Introduction

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.),
hypoglycaemic agent (Jafri et al, 2000),
belongs to punicaceae family. Flavonoid-
peels displayed ,haemostatic, antidiarrho-
rich
poly
phenol
fractions
from
eal, antifertility (Duck et al, 2002),
pomegranate inducing chemicals with a
adjunctive periodontal (Sastravaha et al,
potentially lower toxicology profile than
2003) ,as an antifungal agent against
other therapies. All parts of this plant were
candidosis associated with denture
used to treat various ailments. The extract
stomatitis (Vasconcelos et al , 2003),as a
of root bark has been reported to exert some
strong therapy for leukemia cells (Kawaii
sugar lowering action in animals (Carraz, et
and Lansky, 2004), seed extract showed
al ,1978),the extract of stem bark is used as
antidiarrhoeal activity (Das et al, 1999),
anthelmintic, green leaves are made as a
seed displayed hypoglycaemic activity (Das
paste and applied in conjunctivitis
et al, 2001)and fruit extract possesses
(Satyavati et al ,1978), flowers used as
antioxidant activity (Noda et al, 2002),
anthelmintic,
(Singhal
,1983),
as
improves a depressive state and bone
132

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