toxic effects of alloxan in the rat The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 1 ­ 13 March 2003
I.S.S.N:

12084

­

1861

2002

Toxic effects of alloxan in the rat. Mechanism and
protection with Zinc.

Sohair A. Moustafa
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science Suez Canal University,
Ismailia, Egypt.


Abstract

In the present study male albino rats weighing 200 ± 50 g were made diabetic by
injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was
simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride
(ZnCl2) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-
treatment in both groups. Plasma insulin was significantly higher than control 24 hours
after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus Zn treated groups, and then decreased
48 and 72 hours post treatment in both groups. The reduction was significant after 72
hours in alloxan treated group. A reduction in pancreatic glutathione (GSH)
concentration was observed in alloxan-treated rats compared with control values at all
sampling times of the experiment. When alloxan and ZnCl2 were administered
simultaneously, alloxan-induced reduction in pancreatic GSH was diminished, and a
significant high GSH values were recorded relative to those recorded after treatment
with alloxan alone 24, 48 and 72 hours post treatment. Alloxan has induced a significant
increase in the serum levels of creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 24 hours
after treatment, which returned nearly to their normal levels 48 and 72 hours after
alloxan injection except for the levels of urea and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) which
were dramatically declined 48 hours after treatment before its return to the control level
72 hours following alloxan intoxication. The concentrations of serum metabolites were
unchanged due to the simultaneous treatment with alloxan and ZnCl2 as compared to
their concentrations in alloxan alone-treated rats except after 48 hours where alloxan
plus Zn treatment has caused a significant elevation in the serum levels of urea and
BUN relative to their values in alloxan alone-treated rats. A significant increase in liver
glycogen level was observed 24 hours after alloxan and alloxan plus Zn treatments.
Afterwards, it was markedly depleted by the two treatments 48 and 72 hours post
treatment. The current results clearly indicate that the deleterious effects of alloxan were
attenuated at many points by the simultaneous treatment with Zn. Of special importance
was the effect of Zn in lowering the blood glucose concentration and replenishing the
pancreatic GSH content.

Key words: Alloxan; Zinc; Diabetes; Rats.

Introduction

There is evidence that oxidative
between the production of highly
stress, defined as a persistent imbalance
reactive molecular species (chiefly
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Mohamed Ismail
1


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Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 1)


Epidural versus intravenous clonidine The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 14 ­ 26 March 2003
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687-2002

Epidural versus intravenous clonidine
for postoperative patient controlled analgesia

Soaad A. Lotfy * , Soaad A. Mansour *,Tarek M. El Said *
Amal M. Abd El Fattah **and Amal Abd El Aleem morsy**

Departments of Anaesthesiology *and clinical pathology**
Faculty of medicine for girls - Al Azhar university

Abstract

unlike most other sedative drugs, 2 adrenoceptor agonists e.g (clonidine) are
capable of producing both sedation and analgesia with little if any, respiratory change.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, the respiratory and the
endocrine effects of epidural versus intravenous clonidine for postoperative pain. Forty
adult patients ASA I and II of both sexes were scheduled for elective lower abdominal
or lower extremity surgical procedures. For postoperative pain relief , the patients
were randomly divided into two groups, twenty patient of each. In (Group I) patients
received intravenous clonidine through patient-controlled analgesia pump (IPCA). In
(Group II) patients received epidural clonidine through patient-controlled analgesia
pump (EPCA).
A standard anaesthetic technique was employed to all patients and anaesthesia
was maintained with gas oxygen halothane and muscle relaxant. Serial arterial and
venous blood samples were taken to measure blood gases and endorphin level. After
surgery patients with visual analogue scale ( VAS ) >4 were given clonidine initial dose
4µg/kg intravenous or epidural infusion over a period of 30 minutes then they were
allowed to self administer clonidine using PCA pump which delivered a bolus dose of
0.5µg/kg with a 15 minute lockout interval to the corresponding route.
Self-administered doses were (124.2±34.637µg) in intravenous group and
(100.6±31.406µg) in epidural group. The total clonidine dose was (424. ±38.138µg)
in intravenous group versus (399.8±47.371µg) in epidural group. Pain scores were
lower after than before clonidine administration in both groups . No significant
difference in pain scores were found between the two groups. There was also no
significant changes in respiratory rate, arterial PH, Pa Co2 or Pa o2 in each studied
group and no significant difference between the two groups. Forced vital capacity
( FVC ) and Forced expiratory volume in one second ( FEV1 ) were significantly
reduced before clonidine injection in both groups. The beta endorphin level was
increased after one hour of clonidine administration and there was no significant
difference between the two groups. In conclusion Clonidine proves to be adequate
alternative to opiates without their side effects and the dose of clonidine is lower by the
epidural route.

Introduction
There is great evidence that
relief may help to decrease postop -
unrelieved postoperative pain may
erative
morbidity
(Ready,2000).
result in harmful physiological and
Anaesthesia and surgery are associated
psychological effects and good pain
with dramatic decrease in functional
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Soheir Farag
14


Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 2)


Glucose intolerance due to heavy metals intoxication in the rat The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 27 ­ 33 March 2003
I.S.S.N: 12084
1678 -2002

Glucose intolerance due to heavy metals intoxication in the rat.

Sohair A. Moustafa

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ismailia, Egypt


Abstract
Data of the current study show that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cadmium
chloride (CdCl2) (5 mg/kg) into male albino rats was found to induce a deterioration in
glucose tolerance 24 hr post-treatment, which was accompanied by a reduced elevation
in serum insulin levels inresponse to the glucose challenge. CdCl2 produced a
significant decrease in the liver content of both glutathione and protein contents 24
hours post CdCl2 treatment while a significant elevation in liver thiobarbeturic acid
(TBA)-reactants was observed. A significant decrease in serum total proteins was
noticed due to CdCl2 treatment while the serum levels of the two aminotransferases
enzymes AST & ALT were in significantly changed affected by cadmium intoxication.
The present study suggest that the glucose intolerance observed due to CdCl2
intoxication could be due to the elevation of lipid peroxidation (induced by cadmium)
which may affect the rate of glucose transport into the cells. Impaired insulin synthesis
and the inactivation of the glucose metabolizing enzymes which could be secondary
effects to the glutathione depleting effects of cadmium, were also suggested to be
contributing mechanisms to the deterioration of glucose tolerance in cadmium
intoxicated rats.
The present study throw more light on one of the most serious phases of cadmium
toxicity which emphasizes the importance of performing more studies to explore all the
consequences of heavy metals pollution. This could be a gate way to determine means
for protection against this pollution.

Key Words: Glucose tolerance; Cadmium; Rats

Introduction

Cd exists in the air and water
diseases, including such age-related
pollutants. Its toxic effects on biological
diseases as diabetes (Oh-Ishi et al.,
systems has been extensively reported
2003 and Varvarovska et al., 2003).
(Mennear, 1979; Ahokas et al., 1980;
Earlier studies have reported the
Lewis, 1997 and Moustafa, 2000, 2002).
involvement of oxidative stress in the
Free radicals are evolved at the early
development of impaired carbohydrate
stages of cadmium (Cd) intoxication
metabolism
in
systems
involving
(Ochi et al., 1987, Richelmi et al.,
different cytotoxins Moustafa (1998)
1989). Oxidative stress defined as a
investigating the effects of glutathione
persistent imbalance between the
depletion due to allyl alcohol treatment
production of highly reactive molecular
on carbohydrates metabolism.. In spite
species (chiefly oxygen and nitrogen)
of the existence of plenty of studies
and antioxidant defense, is implicated in
describing the deleterious effects of Cd
a broad variety of chronic and acute
on different biological functions, only
27
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Eman Gamal Helal.

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 3)


Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Ginseng on Experimental Liver and Kidney Injuries Induced by Insecticide Profenophos In Mal The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 34 ­ 51 March 2003
I.S.S.N:

12084


Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Ginseng on Experimental Liver
and Kidney Injuries Induced by Insecticide Profenophos In Male Rats

Fatma A. Morsy
Pathology Department, National Research Center


Abstract

The present investigation deals with histopathological and histochemical studies
of profenophos on liver and kidney of male albino rats and the protective effects of
vitamin C and ginseng to reduce the deleterious effect induced by profenophos. Oral
administration of profenophos at dose level of 1/10 LD50 for 15 successive days induced
histological changes in liver and kidney. No histological or histochemical change could
be detected in liver and kidney of rats treated with each of vitamin C and ginseng.
Profenophos treatment also resulted in histochemical changes in liver and kidney
including decrease in protein granules and marked decrease in DNA and
mucopolysaccharides content.

Administration of vitamin C (0.01/ 100 g b.w) and ginseng (20 mg/ kg b.w) to
profenophos treated animals resulted in an improvement in histological picture of liver
and kidney as well as the histochemical parameters.

Introduction
Pesticides are toxic chemical
insecticides used all over the world
which have been used extensively to
(Gralewicz and Socko 1997). The
increase food production and improve
lethality of organophosphorous comp -
the quality of agricultural crops, and
ounds has been attributed to their
have become an integral part of modern
inhibitory effect on a cetylcholines -
farming. They are generally used to
terase (AchE) in the nervous system
control insects of food crops, fiber
which is responsible for the inactive -
crops, soils, pastures and forests
ation of neurotransmitter a cetylcholin
(Akhter, 1985). Pesticides are mainly
(Liu et al., 1994 and Aschner, 2000).
used
in
agriculture
(68%),
in
Profenophos,
which
is
the
commercial and in industrial activities
pesticide of choice in the present study,
(17%), domestically (8%) and (7%) in
is a widely organophosphorous insecti -
governmental application (cantoni and
cide used in Egypt for the control of
Comi, 1997).
various caterpillars, white fly and mites
Also, these pesticides are chemical
on cotton and vegetable crops (British
hazardous consequences as they may be
crop protection conuncil, 1991). In
the cause of death both through
animal studies, many pesticides are
accidental or international ingestion
carcinogenic
(e.g
organophlorines,
(Sullivan and Blose, 1992). Each
creosote and sulfallate) while other
pesticide had a specific pattern of
(notably, the organochlorines, DDT,
affinity for different tissues (Garcia-
chlordane and lindane) are tumor
Repetto et al., 1995).
promoters (Dich et al., 1997). Both
Organophosphorous compounds
dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP)
represent a large proportion of
and trimethyl phosphate (TMF) are
34

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 4)


ž’ The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 52 ­ 65 March 2003
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002


Histopathological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of
Taurine In Preventing Carbon Tetrachloride ­Induced Hepatic Injury
In The Albino Rat

Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf

Pathology Department­ National Research Center

Abstract

Taurine is an amino acid­ like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This
study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) on liver
Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-
ethanosulfonic acid ) was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven
groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg), CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine,
CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was injected
twice daily for one week before CCL4 treatment), CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine with
and after CCL4 treatment. The sections (six microns) of rat liver were stained with
haematoxyline and eosin for histological examination. Total protein content, alkaline
phosphatase (Alk.ph),
succinic
dehydrogenase (SDH)
,and
lipids
were
demonstrated.CCL4 treatment showed vacuolar degeneration , necrosis , mononuclear
cellular infiltration around the central vein and fatty degeneration .These histological
changes which appeared in the animals treated with CCL4 alone were more extensive
and severe than those seen in the animals treated with CCL4 plus taurine . The
incidences of total protein content, and SDH reaction were markedly reduced in CCL4
treated rats than in those protected with taurine . The Alk.ph. activity and lipid content
were markedly higher in the CCL4 treated rats than in those protected with
taurine.Taurine in this study ,not only reduced the hepatocellular damage but also
improved the hepatocellular functions.

Key words -
:Taurine, carbon tetrachloride, liver , histopathology, histochemistry.

Introduction
Many studies have shown that
dependent
monooxygenase
system,
reactive oxygen species including
resulting
in
the
formation
of
oxygen free radicals are causative
trichloromethyl free radical and reactive
factors in the etiology of degenerative
oxygen species that initiate lipid
diseases, including some hepatopathies
peroxidation and protein oxidation
(Ames et al.,1993and Hung et al.,2002)
(Nobuo,1986 and Lin et al., 1998). Free
.Carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was most
radicals in both in vitro and in vivo
frequently used as a chemical inducer of
models have also been shown to modify
experimental liver cirrhosis(Waring et
and damage proteins, carbohydrates,
al., 2001).It has been suggested that
and DNA( Halliwell and Gutteridge,
hepatic necrosis caused by carbon
1984 and Waters et al., 2001)
tetrachloride involved bioactivation by
Therefore, under such disseminated
the microsomal cytochrome P450-
oxidative stress,bioactive molecules
52

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 5)


Anti-oxidative Effects of Melatonin in Protection The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 66 ­ 89 March 2003
I.S.S.N:

12084
1687 ­2002

Anti-oxidative Effects of Melatonin in Protection
Against Renal tubular Damage Caused
By Ionizing Radiation In Mice
(Histological and electron microscopical studies)

Hanaa Fathy Waer
Biology Depart. Histology Lap. National center for radiation Research and technology
Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo

Abstract

The response to ionizing radiation, at the cellular level, depends on a number of
factors that may be grouped into those that are genetically controlled, radiation quality,
dosage, and environmental factors. The biological effects of low levels of ionizing
radiation, and regulatory measures to protect people from exposure to low doses, have
come in for much scrutiny in recent years.
The objective of this study is to examine the potential radioprotective properties of
melatonin in exposed low dose irradiated mice. Kidney, is selected to study the effect of
low dose gamma irradiation as it is a target organ of many other organs, which
influence its function. Histopathological, and electron microscopical changes of the
renal tubular structure of the kidney were studied in irradiated, and melatonin treated
animals. Male adult albino mice were used in this experiment, they were divided into 5
main groups: the first was, served as control normal group. The 2nd was given-in a
fractionated dose of gamma radiation at a dose level (½ Gy) twice a week for eight
weeks, while the third were left 8 more weeks without radiation. The 4th group was
given daily intraperitoneal, i.p. 10 mg/kg melatonin and irradiated by ½ Gy twice a
week for eight weeks, and the 5 th was left 8 more weeks given melatonin only without
irradiation. (All groups of animals were scarified at two time intervals 8 and 16 weeks).
It could be observed that The intensity of the histological damage was more marked in
the untreated irradiated group which irradiated for 8weeks than those which are
irradiated and left 8 more weeks without radiation irradiated. Hydropic change in the
renal tubule, degenerative, narcotizing changes, and areas of complete proximal tubular
necrosis and autolysis break down were detected.
The protection offered by pretreatment with Mel. is particularly dramatic. . The
proximal tubules retain its normality and structure; the nuclei were rounded with well-
developed nuclear membrane and chromatin. On the other hand the distal tubules were
well designed with many mitochondria and healthy nucleus. It could be reported that 10
mg/kg melatonin given Intraperitoneal, (i.p.) Daily to the irradiated animals helped very
much the kidney to be protected from radiation injuries.
The radioprotective effects of melatonin against cellular damage caused by
radiation oxidative stress and its low toxicity make it a potential supplement in the
treatment or co-treatment in situations where the effects of ionizing radiation are to be
minimized.




Refree : Prof ; Dr. Hassan Sapry
66

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 6)


Biochemical studies on the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Hegleg (Balanites aegyptiaca) fruits in senile diabet The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 90 ­ 108 March 2003
I.S.S.N: 12084
1687 -2002

Anti ­ diabetic properties of water and ethanolic extracts of
Balanites aegyptiaca fruits flesh in senile diabetic rats.

Samir A.M. Zaahkouk* Somaia Z.A. Rashid**and Mattar,A.F.***
* Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al- Azhar University
**Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University
***Histology Department, Faculty of medicine, Al- Azhar University


Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the role of a medicinal plant for
management of diabetes instead of manufactured drugs, which led to many
complications. Medicinal plants would be highly useful for this purpose because they
are considered to be effective and non-toxic and safer than manufactured drugs.
Water and ethanolic extracts of Hegleg (Balanites aegyptiaca) fruits were
investigated for their hypoglycemic and hypolipidimic effect in normal senile diabetic
rats in addition to some hormones related to diabetes mellitus. It has been recently
known that leptin and insulin are involved in the regulation of energy balance and body
weight in addition to reduction of blood glucose level.
The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, glucagon, total lipids,
total cholesterol, triglycerides level and transaminases (AST, ALT and GT) activities.
Liver glycogen, serum insulin, leptin and testoeterone concentrations significantly
increased in treated animals compared to control. The present data revealed insignificant
changes in the serum total protein, albumin and globulin level during the experimental
period. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit as a
hypoglycemic, hypolipidimic agent and as a protective a gent of liver from damage or
injury. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit
flesh my be attributed at least in part to increased glucose metabolism and produces an
increase in serum insulin concentration.

Introduction



At least 90 million people throu -
treatment generally involves increasing
ghout the world suffer from diabetes
physical activity, reducing weight and
mellitus (Swanston-Flatt et al 1991).
improving the diet (Fertig et al., 1995
Lowering the concentration of
and Marles 1995).
glucose in blood is the best defense
Medicinal plants have been also
against the late complications and
used to prevent and control the
negative outcomes of diabetes mellitus
complications associated with diabetes
such as blindness, renal failure and limb
mellitus. Insulin and the other drugs
amputation (Will and Byer, 1996).
which are used to control diabetes are
Although insulin therapy is the primary
chemical compounds that may result in
treatment for lowering blood glucose,
many complications. On the other hand,
the first approach to diabetes mellitus
the medicinal plants are supposedly

Refree : Prof ; Dr. Gamal Abu Senna
90

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 7)


Progressive effects of the interaction of sodium nitrite The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 109 ­ 129 March 2003
I.S.S.N:

12084

­
1861 2002

Progressive effects of nigella sativa ogaiast the
interaction of sodium nitrite and sun - set
yellow in albino rats

Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk ** and
Somaia Z. A. Rashed ***
*Faculty of Science, Zoology Dept., Ahzar University (Girls)
** Faculty of Science, Zoology Dept., Ahzar University
*** Faculty of Science, Zoology Dept., Tanta University

Abstract
It has been noticed that kids usually eat and drink food containing food
preservator and food colorants at the same time. This behavior has been attracted the
attention to study the interaction between one of food preservatives ( sodium nitrite
NaNO3) and one of bood colorants (sunset -yellow S.S.Yellow). The interaction of the
limited dose of these two components resulted in a lethal dose. So, 1/10 of this dose was
used for 30 days and left for another 15 days post the last dose for recovery. Other
group was supplemented with Nigella sativa ( N.S) oil in addition to the same mixture.
Ingestion of (NaNO3 and S.S.Yellow) mixture significantly decreased rat's body
weight, RBC and WBC counts, Hb%, Hct%, serum inorganic phosphorus, serum
protein and serum albumin. Significant increases were observed in serum glucose, T3,
T4, calcium, -GT, LDH, CPK, Alk.ph and cholesterol. Also cholesterol of brain, liver
and heart were significantly elevated. No changes were recorded for; organ/body
weight, respiratory rate, heart beats, rectal temperature, acid phosphatase activity, AST
and ALT activities of serum and tissues, protein of tissues, serum globulin, and total
lipids of serum and tissues, cholesterol of muscle and kidney and serum triglyarides.
A complete recovery of most biochemical and haematological parameters was observed
days after stoppage of the mixture or after administration of Nigella sativa oil.
This study ringe bells of dangerous. The study showed also that even the permitted
colourants and food preservatives when taken together or if taken in excessive quantity
may be harmful. Therefore, provision should be made for quantities estimation of food
additives in various food stuff.

Introduction

Food additives are substances intentio -
common in many cooked meats,
nally added to food. They may be
sausages and bacon and milk used for
naturally occurring or synthetic (Harris,
some
cheeses
and
pizzas.
The
1986). The principle classes of food
percentage of nitrite content of the daily
additives are coloring agents, preserv -
food rations is higher than admissible
atives, flavours, emulsifiers and stabil -
level (Bilczuk et al., 1991). Apparently
izers (Lindsay, 1985). The principle
very little nitrites are formed by
preservatives are nitrites which used as
endogenous synthesis and most, if not
salts or free acids (HMSO, 1987). The
all are of dietary origin (Bartholonew
use of sodium nitrite as a preservative is
and Hill, 1984).
Refree : Prof ; Dr. Mahmoud El-Kasas
109

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 8)


A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NICOTINE EFFECT ON THE LIVER OF ALBINO RAT The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 130 ­ 144 March 2003
I.S.S.N:

12084

­

7861 2002


A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The
Liver Of Albino Rat

Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem
Histology Department, Faculty Of Medicine, Al - Azhar University

Abstract

We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous
nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into;
cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group
was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three
times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after
inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5
subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every
two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control
group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for
preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections
stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image
analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes,
cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins
have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in
both groups. The mean optical density (O D) of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group
was (0.31±0.02), and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03), which were significantly
lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5) and (0.51±0.03)
respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke
resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than
nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after
withdrawal.

Introduction

Nicotine is the main component of
highly susceptible to cancer (Benowitz,
tobacco smoke, and failure to quit
1986).
smoking is virtually attributed to its
Burning of tobacco generates
addictive potential, which is similar to
about 4000 components, the most
that of opium and alcohol (Henningfield
famous one of them is the tar which is a
et al. 1988). It is known that smokers
dark brown material, contains all the
are relatively having a higher morbidity
particulate phase of the smoke that
and/or mortality rate than non-smokers.
includes nicotine, phenols, hydrocar -
Exposure to environmental tobacco
bons, aldehydes, ketons, organic acids,
smoke (ETS) "passive smoking" is also
and alcohol. Tar contains also a
harmful to non-smokers` (Knudson et
condensable amount of the gas phase.
al, 1989a). The US environmental
that includes some toxic gases, such as
protection agency (EPA) classified ETS
cyanides
and
carbon
monoxide
as a class-A carcinogen, as they are
(Byrd,1991), and irritant gases as
130


Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 9)


Ultrastructural and histological changes induced by ivermectin in the ovary of Argas persicus after feeding The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol., 10 : 154 ­ 172 March 2003
I.S.S.N: 12084

­

1861

2002



Ultrastructural and histological changes induced by ivermectin in
the ovary of Argas persicus after feeding

Hamdy, H.Swelim; Aleya, S.Marzouk;Ashraf,A.M.Montasser
Zoology department Faculty of science, Ain Shams University

Abstract

The ovarian wall of A.persicus consists of primary oocytes of three
developmental stages namely , young , previtellogenic and vitellogenic in addition to
interstitial cells . After feeding and mating , the three stages and interstitial cells ,
particularly funicle cells that carry oocytes , markedly increased in size and their
cytoplasmic organelles exhibit notable changes correlated with yolk and egg shell
formation .
The present study examined the hitological and ultrastructural aspects during the
formation of yolk and egg shell. The first seem to originate from small vesicles derived
from Golgi bodies, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial cristae. The egg
shell seems to develop from vesicles derived from Golgi bodies that fuse with the cell
membrane and discharge their content into the extracellular space between basement
membrane and tunica propria. Glycogen aggregates and lipid droplets are commonly
observed between yolk spheres.
The injection of selected dose of ivermectin (400 ug/kg) prevented growth and
development of oocytes. The ovary appeared studded with young and previtellogenic
primary oocytes surrounding a narrow ovarian lumen or the ovarian wall, carrying
oocytes, is stretched around a large fluid filled lumen. Surface microvilli of primary
oocytes and coated vesicles underlying them became comparatively fewer.
Mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum became fewer, fragmented and finally
degenerated in primary oocytes and funicle cells. Ivermectin interfered with the
formation of yolk granules and egg shell. However, in the few formed vitellogenic
oocytes, Golgi bodies were not affected. The egg shell appeared thinner with low
electron density. The cytoplasm of funicle cells became highly vacuolated, its
organelles, hardly distinguished and nuclei became swollen without definite nuclear
membrane. Ivermectin completely prevented the formation of glycogen particles. Our
results suggests that ivermectin causes partial blockage of the release of the
vitellogenetic hormone that regulates vitellogenesis and other aspects of oogenesis as
indicated by disrupted synthesis and uptake of yolk protein in the developing oocytes.

Introduction
The fowl tick Argas (Persicargas)
ssion and thus cause fowl paralysis
persicus is a specific parasite of
which increases in approximately direct
domestic and certain wild birds in parts
proportion to the degree of tick
of Asia,Europe, Africa and Australia
infestation
(Gothe
et
al.,1979).
(Nosek et al.,1980). The Argas toxins
Numerous if not all argasid species
affect afferent and efferent nerve fibres
produce more or less severe irritation
and influence neuromuscular transmi -
when biting man (Yu Quan et al.,1995).
145
Refree : Prof ; Dr.Hassan Sabry.

Full Paper (vol.10 paper# 10)